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Table 3 Multivariate MLRA of individual and community level factors with childhood full immunization among 12–59 months Ethiopian children, EDHS 2011

From: Individual and community level determinants of childhood full immunization in Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis

Individual and community level characteristics Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
AOR [95 % CI] AOR [95 % CI] AOR [95 % CI]
Fixed effects
 Child place of birth Home 1 1
Health institution 1.54 [1.173–2.047] 1.40 [1.058–1.859]
 Maternal education No education 1 1
Primary 1.43 [1.201–1.725] 1.42 [1.191–1.710]
Secondary + 1.88 [1.210–2.922] 1.93 [1.242–3.000]
 Religious affiliation Orthodox 1
Muslim 0.70 [0.554–0.906]
Protestant 0.62 [0.470–0.843]
Traditional/others 0.48 [0.277–0.862]
 Household wealth index Poorest 1 1
Poor 1.29 [1.030–1.634] 1.30 [1.034–1.643]
Medium 1.23 [0.967–1.587] 1.23 [0.963–1.585]
Rich 1.31 [1.016–1.689] 1.32 [1.023–1.706]
Richest 1.83 [1.337–2.521] 1.62 [1.172–2.245]
 Number of U5 children 0.86 [0.775–0.948] 0.87 [0.789–0.964]
 Media exposure Not exposed 1 1
Exposed 1.23 [1.009–1.522] 1.25 [1.019–1.539]
 Residence place Rural   1
Urban   1.50 [1.072–2.118]
 Geographic region Affar 1 1
Tigray 6.50 [3.649–11.544] 6.36 [3.550–11.934]
Amahara 2.51 [1.446–4.383] 2.55 [1.459–4.478]
Oromia 1.15 [0.655–2.033] 1.14 [0.664–2.019]
Somalia 1.86 [0.974–3.577] 2.37 [1.232–4.575]
BEGU 2.34 [1.304–4.228] 2.42 [1.337–4.385]
SNNP 1.54 [0.884–2.684] 1.49 [0.852–2.611]
Gambella 1.65 [0.900–3.032] 1.51 [0.815–2.824]
Harari 1.40 [0.719–2.757] 1.46 [0.751–2.874]
Addis Ababa 7.34 [2.823–19.105] 5.39 [2.047–14.195]
Dire Dawa 3.71 [1.941–7.094] 3.89 [2.014–7.515]
 Community poverty High 1
Low 1.70 [1.313–2.203]
 Community ANC utilization Low 1 1
High 1.54 [1.205–1.990] 1.50 [1.177–1.934]
Random effects
 Community variance (SE) 1.42* (0.17) 1.12* (0.14) 0.82* (0.11) 0.85* (0.12)
 ICC (%) 30.14 25.39 19.95 20.53
 PCV (%) Ref 21.12 42.25 40.14
Model fit statistics
 Log-likelihood −2647.38 −2578.76 −2559.80 −2532.20
 AIC 5298.77 5185.54 5149.61 5108.40
  1. *P-value < 0.05