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Table 2 Associations between job insecurity, unemployment and health

From: Is an insecure job better for health than having no job at all? A systematic review of studies investigating the health-related risks of both job insecurity and unemployment

No. Health dimension Health indicator Publication Unemployment measurement Statistics Job insecurity Unemployment
1. General health Self-rated health (5-point scale) Berth 2003 [35] Job loss experience F-value (p) 1.40 (n.s.) 6.92 (<.05)
2. Satisfaction with one’s own health (5-point scale) Berth 2005 [39] Job loss experience Mean (p) 6.24 (<.01) 6.69 (<.05)
3. Self-rated health (5-point scale) Burgard 2009 (Cohort 1) [36] Job loss experience Unstandardized OLS coefficient (p) −0.032 (n.s.) 0.032 (n.s.)
4. Self-rated health (5-point scale) Burgard 2009 (Cohort 2) [36] Job loss experience Unstandardized OLS coefficient (p) −0.039 (n.s.) −0.005 (n.s.)
5. Mental health Mental Health (GHQ) Flint 2013 [32] Current employment status Unstandardized OLS coefficient (p) 1.11 (<.05) 2.21 (<.05)
6. Job-related affective well-being Makikangas 2011 [34] Job loss experience Odds Ratio (p) 6.32 (<.05) 4.86 (<.05)
7. Anxiety (HADS) Berth 2003 [35] Job loss experience F-value (p) 10.21 (<.001) 6.74 (<.01)
8. Anxiety (PHQ-7) Mewes 2013 [37] Current employment status Mean (p) 2.6 (<.001) 2.6 (<.001)
9. Anxiety (PHQ-4) Zenger 2013 [38] Current employment status, job loss experience, unemployment duration F-value (p) 15.45 (<.001) Frequency: 24.29 (<.001)
Duration: 23.90 (<.001)
Status: 4.90 (<.001)
10. Depression (HADS) Berth 2003 [35] Job loss experience F-value (p) 17.91 (<.001) 10.68 (<.001)
11. Depressive symptoms (CES-D) Burgard 2009 (Cohort 1) [36] Job loss experience Unstandardized OLS coefficient (p) −0-094 (n.s.) 0.042 (n.s.)
12. Depressive symptoms (CES-D) Burgard 2009 (Cohort 2) [36] Job loss experience Unstandardized OLS coefficient (p) 0.053 (n.s.) 0.020 (n.s.)
13. Depressive symptoms (CES-D) Mandal 2011 [30] Job loss experience Unstandardized OLS coefficient (p) −0-036 (n.s.) 0.329 (<.05)
14. Depressive disorder (PHQ-9) Mewes 2013 [37] Current employment status Mean (p) 2.9 (<.001) 3.6 (<.001)
15. Depression (PHQ-4) Zenger 2013 [38] Current employment status F-value (p) 14.24 (<.001) Frequency: 35.11 (<.001)
Duration: 41.74 (<.001)
Job loss experience Status: 7.04 (<.001)
Unemployment duration
16. Somatoform disorder (PHQ-15) Mewes 2013 [37] Current employment status Mean (p) 3.7 (<.001) 3.9 (<.001)
17. Psychological distress (SCL-9) Berth 2003 [35] Job loss experience F-value (p) 3.49 (<.05) 3.29 (<.01)
18. Fatigue (GBB) Berth 2003 [35] Job loss experience F-value (p) 5.70 (<.01) 2.64 (n.s.)
19. Mortality Mortality Amick 2002 [40] Current employment status Odds Ratio (p) 0.95 (n.s.) 2.26 (<.05)
20. Somatic symptoms Stomach trouble (GBB) Berth 2003 [35] Job loss experience F-value (p) 2.98 (<.05) 2.03 (n.s.)
21. Joint pain (GBB) Berth 2003 [35] Job loss experience F-value (p) 2.81 (<.05) 2.13 (n.s.)
22. Heartache (GBB) Berth 2003 [35] Job loss experience F-value (p) 2.21 (n.s.) 1.84 (n.s.)
23. Index of complaints (GBB) Berth 2003 [35] Job loss experience F-value (p) 5.14 (<.01) 3.46 (<.05)
24. Complaints (PHQ-4) Zenger 2013 [38] Current employment status, job loss experience, unemployment duration F-value (p) 5.93 (<.01) Frequency: 6.02 (<.01)
Duration: 10.99 (<.001)
Status: 4.18 (<.001)
  1. Abbreviations: CES-D Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale; GBB Gießener Beschwerdebogen; GHQ General health Questionnaire; HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; n.s. not significant; OLS Ordinary least squares; p p-value, PHQ Patient Health Questionnaire; SCL-9 Symptom Checklist-9