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Table 1 Methodological characteristics of included studies

From: Is an insecure job better for health than having no job at all? A systematic review of studies investigating the health-related risks of both job insecurity and unemployment

Author (year) Country Research design (specific population) Study year (follow-up) Sample size Baseline resp. (follow-up rate) Age mean Male in % Covariates in adjusted multivariable model
Amick, 2002 USA [40] Cohort study (working cohort) 1968 (24 years) 25,413 n.a. (30.5 %) 45.0 44.9 Age, race, gender, year, family income, family size, retirement, unemployment, retirement by age interaction, race by age interaction, baseline disability, job strain
Berth, 2003 GER [35] Cross-sectional study 2002 (−−) 420 72.0 % (−−) 29.0 46.8 --
Berth, 2005 GER [39] Cross-sectional study 2003 (−−) 419 71.0 % (−−) 30.1 46.1 --
Burgard, 2009 USA [36] Two complementary cohort studies 1986 (3 years) 1995 (10 years) 1,867 70.0 % (87.0 %) 41.2 53.6 Age, gender, race, marital status, household income, education, job insecurity, involuntarily job loss, employed at follow-up, self-employed, part-time, health shock, high blood pressure, neuroticism, smoking status, self-rated health and depressive symptoms at baseline
1,712 61.0 % (80.0 %) 43.4 43.7
Ferrie, 1997 GB [31] Cohort study (subsample Whitehall-II) 1985 (9 years) 666 73.0 %a (81.2 %) n.a. 76.7 Age, grade and baseline value of the variable
Flint, 2013 GB [32] Cohort study 1991 (16 years) 10,494 92.0 %b (66.2 %) n.a. 48.4 Age, age2, education, physical health problems, spousal joblessness, spousal GHQ-12, marital status, unemployed spells in past 12 months, residence in social housing, substance abuse, equivalised household income, permanent sickness
Green, 2011 AUS [33] Cohort study 2001 (7 years) 13,969 93.5 % (93.3 %) 36.1 n.a. Age, marital status, number of children, education, income, Employability if unemployed, re-employment difficulty, personal characteristics (extroversion, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience), long term health condition, others present in interview, regional Australia, remote Australia
Levenstein, 2001 USA [15] Cohort study 1965 (29 years) 6,928 86.2 % (39.4 %) n.a. 43.7 Age, gender, ethnicity, educational status, occupational status, not in labor force, depression and anomy score, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity, having had a medical checkup within 2 years before the follow-up study.
Mandal 2011 USA [30]c Cohort Study 1992 (14 years) 5994 81.6 (88.6 %) 54.8 48.8 Age, gender, ethnicity, educational level, suffered business closure, displaced x expectation, got married/partnered, got separated/divorced/widowed, change in housing assets, job tenure years, type of occupation, S&P 500 returns
Makikangas, 2011 FIN [34] Cohort study (Finnish managers) 1996 (10 years) 1,035 64.0 % (38.8 %) 41.9 95.0 --
Mewes, 2013 GER [37] Cross-sectional study 2007 (−−) 2,510 61.9 % (−−) 42.0 45.5 --
Perlman, 2009 RUS [41] Cohort study 1994 (9 years) 17,154 88.8 % (59.6 %) n.a. 52.6 Age, education, occupation, alcohol, smoking, material goods, age at entry, district in Russia, and cluster by household.
Zenger, 2013 GER [38] Cross-sectional study 2010 (−−) 2,504 56.2 % (−−) 51.8 46.7 --
  1. aSince the response rate for the subsample of PSA-respondents was not available, the overall response-rate for the Whitehall-II sample was used; bData on the follow-up rate were looked up in the manual of the British Household Panel Survey (Taylor et al. 2010 [42]); cPooled results for age-groups 45–54 and 55–65
  2. Abbreviations: BMI Body-Mass-Index; GHQ General health Questionnaire; S&P 500 Standard and poor’s 500 stock market index