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Table 7 Hypotheses A, testing if exposure to multiple forms of violence is more strongly associated to symptoms of psychological ill-health, than reporting one form of violence (model 3)

From: Lifetime co-occurrence of violence victimisation and symptoms of psychological ill health: a cross-sectional study of Swedish male and female clinical and population samples

Number of forms of violence Women Men
Symptoms of psychological ill-health Symptoms of psychological ill-health
N Few (score 1–6) Many (score 7–18) N Few (score 1–6) Many (score 7–18)
OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI
Population samples
One form 217 1    1    817 1    1   
Two forms 112 1.5 0.8 2.6 2.4 1.2 4.9 304 2.5 1.8 3.4 5.5 3.6 8.6
Three forms 76 2.1 1.0 4.4 3.8 1.6 8.8 61 7.3 3.0 18.0 23.5 8.9 62.5
Model fit R2= 0.13 (Cox & Snell), 0.15 (Nagelkerke). Model χ2(18) = 54.73 R2= 0.21 (Cox & Snell), 0.24 (Nagelkerke). Model χ2(18) = 272.67
Clinical samples
One form 401 1    1    418 1    1   
Two forms 221 1.8 1.2 2.7 2.4 1.5 4.0 169 2.7 1.8 4.2 6.3 3.5 11.1
Three forms 139 4.9 2.6 9.2 10.1 5.1 20.3        
Model fit R2= 0.14 (Cox & Snell), 0.16 (Nagelkerke). Model χ2(18) = 116.66 R2= 0.14 (Cox & Snell), 0.16 (Nagelkerke). Model χ2(18) = 89.00
  1. Note: Reference category is “no symptoms of psychological ill-health” (score 0). All models are adjusted for age, educational leveL, civil state and occupation. Reference category is “no symptoms of psychological ill-health” = 0 points, “Low level “=1-6 points and High level is ≥7 points