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Table 6 The association between violence by multiple perpetrators and symptoms of psychological ill-health in the clinical sample (Model 2)

From: Lifetime co-occurrence of violence victimisation and symptoms of psychological ill health: a cross-sectional study of Swedish male and female clinical and population samples

   Women   Men
    Symptoms of psychological ill-health    Symptoms of psychological ill-health
   N Few (score =1-6) Many (score 7–18) No of kinds of perpetrators* N Few (score =1-6) Many (score 7–18)
N = 924 (40.3 %) N =222 (9.7 %) N = 561 (33.5 %) N = 125 (7.4 %)
Civil state Partner 1935 1   1    1351 1   1  
  Single 357 1.2 0.9–1.5 1.7 1.1–2.5   342 1.4 1.03–1.8 2.0 1.3–3.1
Education ≥13 873 1   1    539 1   1  
  <12 1419 1.0 0.9–1.3 1.2 0.9–1.7   1154 1.2 0.98–1.6 1.5 0.9–2.3
Occupation Employed 1563 1   1    795 1   1  
  Retired, sick-leave
social welfare
407 1.4 1.05–1.8 4.5 3.0–6.9   807 1.0 0.8–1.3 4.7 2.1–10.5
  Other 322 1.1 0.9–1.5 1.8 1.1–2.8   91 1.4 0.8–2.3 2.2 1.4–3.7
Agegroup <29 373 1   1    107 1   1  
  30–39 512 0.8 0.6–1.1 0.8 0.5–1.4   138 0.7 0.4–1.3 2.1 0.7–6.4
  40–49 470 0.8 0.6–1.1 0.8 0.5–1.4   170 1.0 0.5–1.7 4.8 1.7–13.6
  >50 937 0.6 0.5–0.8 0.4 0.3–0.7   1278 0.6 0.3–0.96 1.3 0.5–3.5
Kind of perpetrator No violence 1531 1   1   No violence 1106 1   1  
Family 123 2.1 1.4–3.1 3.3 1.6–6.6 One kind 449 2.1 1.7–2.7 4.0 2.6–6.3
  Partner 180 2.9 2.0–4.2 10.9 6.5–18.4 ≥2 kinds 138 3.5 2.3–5.3 13.6 7.7–24.3
  Community 212 2.0 1.5–2.8 6.6 4.0–10.9       
  Fam + Part 44 3.6 1.6–8.0 17.7 7.1–44.0       
  Fam + Com 67 2.9 1.6–5.2 14.9 7.1–31.3       
  Part + Com 79 2.8 1.5–5.0 19.2 9.8–37.8       
  Fam + Part + Com 56 8.7 3.3–22.6 57.4 20.6–159.9       
Model fit:   R2 = 0.16 (Cox & Snell), 0.19 (Nagelkerke).   R2 = 0.11 (Cox & Snell), 0.14 (Nagelkerke).
Model χ2(28) = 393.96 Model χ2(18) = 199.49
  1. Note: Reference category is “no symptoms of psychological ill-health” (score 0)
  2. Fam = Family, Part = Partner, Acq/Str = Aquaintance/Stranger. Occupation “other” = Unemployed, student, pregnant or parental leave
  3. *Because the number of men subjected to some of the combinations of perpetrators was low in the male clinical sample, analyses could not be made for all possible combinations of perpetrators. Rather respondents were categorized according to the number of kinds of perpetrators they reported