Skip to main content

Table 3 The association between exposure to multiple forms of violence and symptoms of psychological ill-health in the population samples (Model 1)

From: Lifetime co-occurrence of violence victimisation and symptoms of psychological ill health: a cross-sectional study of Swedish male and female clinical and population samples

   Women Men
    Symptoms of psychological ill-health   Symptoms of psychological ill-health
    Few (score =1-6) Many (score 7–18)   Few (score =1-6) Many (score 7–18)
N = 454 (40.7 %) N =112 (10.0 %) N = 883 (31.5 %) N = 217 (7.7 %)
   N OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI N OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI
Civil state Partner 901 1   1   1982 1   1  
  Single 215 1.2 0.8–1.6 1.5 0.9–2.6 819 1.4 1.2–1.8 2.3 1.6–3.2
Education ≥13 501 1   1   1194 1   1  
  <12 615 0.8 0.6–1.1 0.9 0.6–1.5 1607 0.8 0.7–0.99 0.8 0.6–1.1
Occupation Employed 787 1   1   2251 1 - 1  
  Retired, sick-leave social welfare 104 2.8 1.7–4.7 7.7 3.8–15.6 187 2.0 1.3–2.9 14.9 9.2–24.2
  Other 225 1.4 0.98–2.0 1.8 0.99–3.3 363 1.4 1.03–1.8 3.0 1.9–4.9
Agegroup <29 248 1   1   567 1   1  
  30–39 234 0.8 0.5–1.3 1.4 0.7–2.7 550 1.1 0.8–1.4 1.0 0.6–1.7
  40–49 279 0.8 0.5–1.1 0.7 0.3–1.3 625 0.9 0.7–1.2 1.5 0.9–2.5
  >50 355 0.8 0.6–1.2 0.7 0.3–1.4 1059 0.7 0.5–0.9 0.8 0.5–1.3
Form of violence No violence 711 1   1   1619 1   1  
Emotional 77 3.0 1.7–5.3 12.9 5.9–28.3 153 3.2 2.2–4.6 8.2 4.5–14.9
  Physical 77 2.9 1.7–4.8 3.8 1.4–10.2 624 1.5 1.2–1.8 2.5 1.6–3.8
  Sexual 63 2.0 1.1–3.5 5.8 2.4–14.0 40 1.6 0.8–3.1 1.9 0.4–8.9
  Emo + Phys 60 5.1 2.5–10.4 27.8 11.6–66.8 266 4.8 3.5–6.6 21.2 13.3–33.8
  Emo + Sex 33 4.0 1.6–9.9 18.0 5.9–55.1 14 1.4 0.4–5.0 4.9 0.98–24.5
  Phys + Sex 19 2.2 0.9–5.8 2.3 0.3–19.1 24 2.4 1.003–5.5 4.1 0.8–20.5
  Emo + Phys + Sex 76 5.7 2.8–11.4 28.6 12.3–66.1 61 12.1 5.0–29.4 72.6 27.2–193.8
Model fit:   R2 = 0.20 (Cox & Snell), 0.24 (Nagelkerke). R2 = 0.19 (Cox & Snell), 0.24 (Nagelkerke).
Model χ2(28) = 252.87 Model χ2(28) = 600.76
  1. Note: Reference category is “no symptoms of psychological ill-health” (score 0).Emo= Emotional violence, Phys = Physical violence, Sex= Sexual violence. Occupation “other”=Unemployed, student, pregnant or parental leave