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Table 1 Characteristics and health outcomes of children (aged 0–17) by gender in rural China

From: Does the timing of parental migration matter for child growth? A life course study on left-behind children in rural China

  Wave
1997 2000 2004 2006 2009 N
Boys Proportion (%)
Only childa 37 (22.0) 55 (22.5) 97 (28.5) 118 (34.7) 188 (50.7) 495
Never left behind 120 (71.4) 157 (64.1) 226 (66.3) 217 (63.8) 249 (67.1) 969
Left behind in early childhood only 4 (2.4) 16 (6.5) 35 (10.3) 47 (13.8) 67 (18.1) 169
Left behind in early and later childhood 5 (3.0) 14 (5.7) 22 (6.5) 19 (5.6) 18 (4.9) 78
Left behind in later childhood only 39 (23.2) 58 (23.7) 58 (17.0) 57 (16.8) 37 (10.0) 249
Mean (s.d.)
Height (cm) 93.6 (13.7) 103.2 (17.5) 114.8 (24.6) 117.9 (27.0) 120.3 (30.5) 1465
Weight (kg) 14.3 (3.6) 17.4 (5.6) 22.6 (10.0) 24.4 (12.1) 26.179 (15.0) 1465
Age (years) 3.6 (1.7) 5.1 (2.5) 7.0 (3.7) 7.5 (4.2) 7.6 (4.8) 1465
Household income per capita (RMB) 3100.7 (2735.1) 3508.4 (2741.4) 4594.5 (4088.1) 4938.8 (5103.2) 8471.8 (7968.2) 1465
Asset score 1.2 (0.7) 1.2 (0.8) 1.6 (0.8) 1.7 (0.8) 1.8 (0.8) 1465
Girls Proportion (%)
Only childa 26 (23.4) 32 (18.4) 61 (23.6) 85 (30.9) 102 (37.5) 306
Never left behind 82 (73.9) 112 (64.4) 166 (64.3) 179 (65.1) 182 (66.9) 721
Left behind in early childhood only 7 (6.3) 8 (4.6) 27 (10.5) 37 (13.5) 38 (14.0) 117
Left behind in early and later childhood 4 (3.6) 10 (5.8) 17 (6.6) 16 (5.8) 16 (5.9) 63
Left behind in later childhood only 18 (16.2) 44 (25.3) 48 (18.6) 43 (15.6) 36 (13.2) 189
  Mean (s.d.)  
Height (cm) 90.5 (14.9) 103.0 (17.2) 112.5 (25.3) 116.8 (26.9) 120.8 (27.2) 1090
Weight (kg) 13.2 (3.7) 16.8 (5.1) 21.4 (9.8) 24.0 (12.4) 25.9 (13.7) 1090
Age (years) 3.3 (1.8) 5.2 (2.4) 6.7 (3.7) 7.4 (4.2) 8.0 (4.7) 1090
Household income per capita (RMB) 3232.9 (2796.2) 3593.2 (3626.2) 4600.4 (4162.2) 5416.7 (5865.4) 7158.6 (6862.7) 1090
Asset score 1.3 (0.7) 1.2 (0.7) 1.6 (0.8) 1.7 (0.8) 1.7 (0.8) 1090
  1. aWhether this child is the only child within a household