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Table 4 Comparison of positive rates of environmental surveillance for H7N9 virus by residential area (urban and rural) — Zhejiang Province, China, March 2013-February 2015

From: Human infection and environmental contamination with Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus in Zhejiang Province, China: risk trend across the three waves of infection

Characteristics 1st wave 2nd wave 3rd wave Total P value of trend
Urban Rural P value Urban Rural P value Urban Rural P value Urban Rural P value Urban Rural
Towns, % (positive towns/total towns) 2.9 (1/35) 7.3 (4/55) 0.645 25.4 (35/138) 15.6 (34/218) 0.028 29.1 (23/79) 40.3 (81/201) 0.099 33.7 (56/166) 31.0 (105/339) 0.543 0.008 <0.001
Premises, % (positive premises/total premises) 1.7 (1/60) 3.7 (4/108) 0.656 13.7 (49/358) 8.5 (42/497) 0.018 21.2 (35/165) 32.2 (101/314) 0.014 15.4 (85/551) 16.3 (145/889) 0.711 <0.001 <0.001
Environment samples of different premises, % positive specimens/ total specimens) 0.6 (3/472) 0.9 (8/879) 0.756 5.8 (188/3221) 2.1 (94/4444) <0.001 8.0 (97/1207) 14.2 (382/2697) <0.001 5.9 (288/4900) 6.0 (484/8020) 0.730 <0.001 <0.001
 Live poultry markets 1.2 (3/252) 1.7 (4/229) 0.714 7.1 (188/2637) 3.8 (92/2427) <0.001 8.7 (59/675) 18.1 (343/1894) <0.001 7.0 (250/3564) 9.6 (439/4550) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
 Poultry rearing farms 0.0 (0/128) 1.2 (4/337) 0.579 0.0 (0/184) 0.2 (2/944) 1.000 0.0 (0/165) 0.0 (0/287) - 0.0 (0/477) 0.4 (6/1568) 0.346 - 0.019
 Concentrated areas of backyard poultry farms 0.0 (0/15) 0.0 (0/200) - 0.0 (0/157) 0.0 (0/891) - 0.0 (0/60) 1.1 (2/186) 1.000 0.0 (0/232) 0.2 (2/1277) 1.000 - 0.017
 Slaughtering and processing plants 0.0 (0/11) 0.0 (0/6) - 0.0 (0/77) 0.0 (0/44) - 9.2 (12/131) 9.1 (5/55) 1.000 5.5 (12/219) 4.8 (5/105) 1.000 0.010 0.057
 Habitats for migratory birds 0.0 (0/19) 0.0 (0/67) - 0.0 (0/14) 0.0 (0/84) - 0.0 (0/6) 0.0 (0/81) - 0.0 (0/39) 0.0 (0/232) - - -
 Others 0.0 (0/47) 0.0 (0/40) - 0.0 (0/152) 0.0 (0/54) - 15.3 (26/170) 16.5 (32/194) 0.776 7.0 (26/369) 11.1 (32/288) 0.073 <0.001 <0.001
Environment samples of different types, % (positive specimens/total specimens) 0.6 (3/472) 0.9 (8/879) 0.756 5.8 (188/3221) 2.1 (94/4444) <0.001 8.0 (97/1207) 14.2 (382/2697) <0.001 5.9 (288/4900) 6.0 (484/8020) 0.730 <0.001 <0.001
 Fecal dropping swab 0.0 (0/190) 0.5 (2/432) 1.000 2.7 (26/977) 1.7 (33/1897) 0.126 4.1 (17/410) 12.3 (156/1273) <0.001 2.7 (43/1577) 5.3 (191/3602) <0.001 0.004 <0.001
 Poultry cage swab 0.0 (0/114) 0.0 (0/167) - 7.6 (60/786) 2.0 (19/970) <0.001 8.7 (17/196) 12.4 (67/540) 0.190 7.0 (77/1096) 5.1 (86/1677) 0.039 0.013 <0.001
 Drinking water sample 0.0 (0/47) 1.5 (2/131) 1.000 5.5 (16/289) 1.2 (7/578) <0.001 5.9 (6/102) 12.8 (28/219) 0.079 5.0 (22/438) 4.0 (37/928) 0.394 0.251 <0.001
 Sewage of cleaning poultry 0.0 (0/30) 2.7 (1/37) 1.000 6.3 (25/400) 3.5 (14/395) 0.100 14.0 (18/129) 26.2 (43/164) 0.013 7.7 (43/559) 9.7 (58/596) 0.252 0.001 <0.001
 Swab of tables for slaughtering or processing poultry 2.9 (1/34) 0.0 (0/23) 1.000 7.7 (39/509) 4.0 (15/375) 0.032 9.0 (20/223) 18.1 (73/403) 0.002 7.8 (60/766) 11.0 (88/801) 0.038 0.305 <0.001
 Others 3.5 (2/57) 3.4 (3/89) 1.000 8.5 (22/260) 2.6 (6/229) 0.006 12.9 (19/147) 15.3 (15/98) 0.706 9.3 (43/464) 5.8 (24/416) 0.056 0.029 0.001