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Table 4 Final multilevel linear regression model with fruit and vegetable intake score as a response variable

From: Food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in a urban population: A multilevel analysis

Variables
Fixed effect Effect SE CI 95 % p- value
Intercept 4.80 1.16 2.51 7.09 <0.001
Male gender (vs. female) 0.59 0.10 0.39 – 0.80 <0.001
Age 0.01 0.004 0.002 -0.02 <0.001
Active in LTPA 0.72 0.13 0.47 – 0.97 <0.001
Smoking (yes vs. no) −0.29 0.12 −0.52 - -0.05 0.018
SSB intake (5 or more days per week) −0.28 0.11 −0.47 - -0.09 0.004
Education level (y)     
0-8 (reference)     
9-11 0.68 0.11 0.46 – 0.90 <0.001
12 or more 0.90 0.16 0.57 – 1.21  
Density1 of healthy food outlets3 in CA2 3.93 0.90 2.16 – 5.70 <0.001
Density1 of unhealthy food outlets4 in CA2 −0.88 0.23 −1.32 - -0.43 <0.001
Total income in CA2 0.31 0.07 0.17 – 0.46 <0.001
Random effect –level 2 σ2 u0     t-ratio*
Variance – Intercept 201.16 165.96 3.47 – 5.78 1.21
Slope variance – gender 1.56 0.24 1.14 – 2.11 6.50
Slope variance – age 0.003 0.001 0.002 – 0.004 3.00
Slope variance – leisure time physical activity 2.34 0.42 1.65 – 3.32 5.57
Slope variance – smoking 2.06 0.29 1.64 – 3.32 7.10
Slope variance – education level (years of study) 0.98 0.16 0.72 – 1.34 6.13
Random effect – level 1 σ2 e     
Variances of R ij 3.28 0.12 3.06 – 3.52 27.33
  1. SE – standard error
  2. LR test p-value <0.001
  3. 95 % CI = 95 % Confidence Interval
  4. * Wald test - critical value = 1.96
  5. SSB: Sugar sweetened beverages
  6. LTPA: Leisure time physical activity
  7. 1Density = number of stores/Area in Km2
  8. 2CA: coverage areas by the basic health units
  9. 3Stores and open-air markets specialized in selling fruit and vegetables
  10. 4Bars, snack bars and food trucks/trailers
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