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Table 1 Questionnaire items and response categories of individual and family environmental variables

From: Individual and family environmental correlates of television and computer time in 10- to 12-year-old European children: the ENERGY-project

Individual variables Item (ICC TV/PC) Response category
 Child perception of the screen time recommendations (CQ) Children my age should not watch TV/DVD or use a computer/game console for leisure activities for more than… (ICC = 0.51/0.58) 1 = 30 min/day; 2 = 1 h/day; 3 = 2 h/day; 4 = 3 h/day; 5 = 4 h/day
 Child attitudea (CQ) I think watching TV/DVD or using the computer/game console for leisure activities is good for me (ICC = 0.59/0.59) 1 = I fully agree; 2 = I partly agree; 3 = Neither agree nor disagree; 4 = I partly disagree; 5 = I fully disagree
 Child preferencea (CQ) I like watching TV/DVD or using a computer/game console for leisure activities (ICC = 0.56/0.51) 1 = I fully agree; 2 = I partly agree; 3 = Neither agree nor disagree; 4 = I partly disagree; 5 = I fully disagree
 Child self-efficacy (CQ) I find it hard to NOT watch TV/DVD or use a computer/game console for leisure activities (ICC = 0.57/0.69) 1 = I fully agree; 2 = I partly agree; 3 = Neither agree nor disagree; 4 = I partly disagree; 5 = I fully disagree
 Child habita (CQ) Watching TV/DVD or using a computer/game console for leisure activities is something that I do without really thinking about it (ICC = 0.60/0.63) 1 = I fully agree; 2 = I partly agree; 3 = Neither agree nor disagree; 4 = I partly disagree; 5 = I fully disagree
 Child agreement with rulesa (CQ) It is OK for me that my parents have rules about how much I can watch TV/DVD or use a computer/game console for leisure activities (ICC = 0.53/0.59) 1 = I fully agree; 2 = I partly agree; 3 = Neither agree nor disagree; 4 = I partly disagree; 5 = I fully disagree
Social environment: Factors regarding what is socially appropriate, acceptable or desirable as related to screen time behavioural choices
 Parental behavioura (CQ) How often do your parents/guardians watch TV/DVD or use a computer/game console for leisure activities? (ICC = 0.73/0.46) 1 = Always; 2 = Often; 3 = Sometimes; 4 = Not often; 5 = Never
 Parental co-participation (CQ) How often do you watch TV/DVD or use a computer/game console for leisure activities with your parents/guardians? (ICC = 0.65/0.56) 1 = Never; 2 = Less than once a week; 3 = Once a week; 4 = 2–4 days a week; 5 = 5–6 days a week; 6 = Every day, once a day; 7 = Every day, more than once a day
 Parental subjective norm (CQ) If I watch TV/DVD or use a computer/game console for leisure activities, my parents/guardians think this is good for me (ICC = 0.57/0.52) 1 = I fully agree; 2 = I partly agree; 3 = Neither agree nor disagree; 4 = I partly disagree; 5 = I fully disagree
 Parental perception of the screen time recommendations (PQ) Children of same age as my child should not watch TV/DVD or use a computer/game console for leisure activities for more than… (ICC = 0.67/0.68) 1 = 30 min/day; 2 = 1 h/day; 3 = 2 h/day; 4 = 3 h/day; 5 = 4 h/day
 Parental avoidance of negative modeling behavioura (PQ) If I would like to watch TV/DVD or use a computer/game console for leisure activities, I would refrain from doing so if my child were there (ICC = 0.62/0.47) 1 = Always; 2 = Often; 3 = Sometimes; 4 = Not often; 5 = Never
Political environment: Rules and regulations regarding screen time behavioural choices
 Parental strictness item 1 (CQ) My parents/guardians let me watch TV/DVD or use a computer/game console whenever I want (ICC = 0.73/0.67) 1 = I fully agree; 2 = I partly agree; 3 = Neither agree nor disagree; 4 = I partly disagree; 5 = I fully disagree
 Parental strictness item 2 (CQ) If I ask my parents/guardians to watch TV/DVD or use a computer/game console for leisure activities, I can do so (ICC = 0.49/0.65) 1 = I fully agree; 2 = I partly agree; 3 = Neither agree nor disagree; 4 = I partly disagree; 5 = I fully disagree
 Parental rules (CQ) My parents/guardians have rules about how much I am allowed to watch TV/DVD or use a computer/game console for leisure activities (ICC = 0.56/0.69) 1 = I fully agree; 2 = I partly agree; 3 = Neither agree nor disagree; 4 = I partly disagree; 5 = I fully disagree
 Child participation in setting rules (CQ) Did you take part in setting these rules for TV/DVD watching or using a computer/game console for leisure activities (ICC = 0.68/0.68) 0 = No; 1 = Yes
 Parental monitoringa (PQ) I pay attention to the amount of time my child watches TV/DVD or uses a computer/game console for leisure activities (ICC = 0.67/0.74) 1 = Always; 2 = Often; 3 = Sometimes; 4 = Not often; 5 = Never
 Parental negotiationa (PQ) I discuss the amount of time my child is allowed to watch TV/DVD or to use a computer/game console for leisure activities with him/her (ICC = 0.71/0.71) 1 = Always; 2 = Often; 3 = Sometimes; 4 = Not often; 5 = Never
Economic environment: Factors related to the ‘affordability’ of screen time behavioural choices, i.e. financial opportunities regarding, and the costs of, screen time behavioural choices
 Parental education (PQ) What is the highest level of education you have completed? 1 = Elementary school; 2 = Secondary school; 3 = College/University (Bachelor degree or equivalent); 4 = College/University (Master degree; equivalent or more)
Response category 1 and 2 were combined into 1 = Low education; Response category 3 and 4 were combined into 2 = High education
Physical environment: Availability and accessibility of screen time behavioural choices
 Number of TV’s in the household (CQ) How many TV’s are there in your home? (ICC = 0.87) 1 = None; 2 = 1; 3 = 2; 4 = 3; 5 = 4; 6 = More than 4
 Having a TV in the bedroom (CQ) Do you have a TV in your own bedroom? (ICC = 0.87) 0 = No; 1 = Yes
 Having a TV in the kitchen (PQ) Do you have a TV in your kitchen? (ICC = 0.88) 0 = No; 1 = Yes
 Number of computers in the household (CQ) How many computers are there in your home? (Include laptops and iPads) (ICC = 0.92) 1 = None; 2 = 1; 3 = 2; 4 = 3; 5 = 4; 6 = More than 4
 Having an own computer (CQ) Do you have your own computer? (ICC = 0.96) 0 = No; 1 = Yes
 Number of consoles in the household (CQ) How many game consoles (e.g. Playstation, Xbox, Nintendo (Wii, GameCube, DS)) are there in your home? (ICC = 0.80) 1 = None; 2 = 1; 3 = 2; 4 = 3; 5 = 4; 6 = More than 4
 Having an own console (CQ) Do you have your own game console (e.g. Playstation, Xbox, Nintendo (Wii, GameCube, DS))? (ICC = 0.88) 0 = No; 1 = Yes
  1. aThese items were inversely recoded to attain that a higher score also represents a higher form of the variable; CQ child questionnaire, PQ parental questionnaire