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Table 4 Multivariable-adjusted cardiovascular mortality-rate ratios for PM2.5 after adjusting for other pollutants

From: Chronic exposure to particulate matter and risk of cardiovascular mortality: cohort study from Taiwan

Quintile PM2.5 PM2.5 + CO PM2.5 + NO2 PM2.5 + NO PM2.5 + NOX PM2.5 + O3 PM2.5 + SO2
HRa (95 % CI) HRa (95 % CI) HRa (95 % CI) HRa (95 % CI) HRa (95 % CI) HRa (95 % CI) HRa (95 % CI)
1 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
2 1.25 (0.77–2.04) 1.20 (0.74–1.96) 1.05 (0.59–1.89) 1.37 (0.83–2.24) 1.17 (0.72–1.91) 0.99 (0.48–2.04) 1.32 (0.76–2.29)
3 1.07 (0.70–1.64) 0.88 (0.56–1.38) 0.82 (0.43–1.59) 1.02 (0.66–1.56) 0.86 (0.54–1.38) 0.80 (0.36–1.76) 1.13 (0.70–1.89)
4 0.93 (0.63–1.36) 0.68 (0.43–1.07) 0.65 (0.29–1.44) 0.79 (0.53–1.17) 0.65 (0.39–1.08) 0.66 (0.26–1.60) 0.99 (0.61–1.61)
5 0.94 (0.59–1.49) 0.60 (0.33–1.09) 0.63 (0.25–1.57) 0.71 (0.42–1.20) 0.60 (0.31–1.14) 0.66 (0.26–1.67) 1.04 (0.52–2.07)
  1. CO carbon monoxide, NO nitric oxide, NO 2 nitrogen dioxide, NO X nitrogen oxides, SO 2 sulfur dioxide, O 3 ozone, CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex, marital status, income, smoking, alcohol, BMI, and education