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Table 2 Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause, CVD, IHD and cerebrovascular mortality, estimated from cox proportional-hazards model

From: Chronic exposure to particulate matter and risk of cardiovascular mortality: cohort study from Taiwan

  No. of persons No. of deaths Deaths/1000 person-years Model 1a Model 2b
     HR (95 % CI) HR (95 % CI)
All–causes
Per 10 μg/m3 increase   0.90 (0.71–1.15) 0.92 (0.72–1.17)
 Q1 5,520 246 0.77 1.00 1.00
 Q2 3,847 202 0.91 1.09 (0.91–1.32) 1.10 (0.92–1.33)
 Q3 8,267 367 0.77 1.01 (0.86–1.18) 0.99 (0.84–1.16)
 Q4 19,004 900 0.79 0.91 (0.79–1.05) 0.95 (0.82–1.09)
 Q5 6,589 277 0.74 0.99 (0.84–1.18) 0.98 (0.82–1.16)
p-value for linear trend    0.92
CVD
Per 10 μg/m3 increase   0.78 (0.42–1.48) 0.80 (0.43–1.50)
 Q1 5,520 34 0.11 1.00 1.00
 Q2 3,847 31 0.14 1.23 (0.76–2.01) 1.25 (0.77–2.04)
 Q3 8,267 56 0.12 1.12 (0.73–1.71) 1.07 (0.70–1.64)
 Q4 19,004 121 0.11 0.87 (0.59–1.27) 0.93 (0.63–1.36)
 Q5 6,589 38 0.1 0.99 (0.62–1.57) 0.94 (0.59–1.49)
p-value for linear trend    0.49
IHD
Per 10 μg/m3 increase   0.74 (0.30–1.81) 0.76 (0.31–1.84)
 Q1 5,520 15 0.047 1.00 1.00
 Q2 3,847 15 0.068 1.25 (0.62–2.54) 1.26 (0.62–2.55)
 Q3 8,267 33 0.069 1.42 (0.78–2.57) 1.33 (0.73–2.42)
 Q4 19,004 60 0.053 0.92 (0.53–1.60) 0.99 (0.57–1.72)
 Q5 6,589 15 0.04 0.84 (0.42–1.70) 0.80 (0.40–1.63)
p-value for linear trend    0.84
Cerebrovascular disease
Per 10 μg/m3 increase   0.68 (0.34–2.04) 0.84 (0.35–2.04)
 Q1 5,520 18 0.057 1.00 1.00
 Q2 3,847 16 0.072 1.22 (0.62–2.39) 1.24 (0.63–2.44)
 Q3 8,267 23 0.048 0.86 (0.46–1.60) 0.83 (0.45–1.54)
 Q4 19,004 61 0.054 0.82 (0.48–1.38) 0.88 (0.52–1.49)
 Q5 6,589 23 0.061 1.11 (0.60–2.06) 1.05 (0.56–1.94)
p-value for linear trend    0.76
  1. CVD cardiovascular disease (combines IHD and cerebrovascular disease), IHD ischemic heart disease, CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio
  2. aModel 1: Adjusted for age
  3. bModel 2: Adjusted for age, sex, marital status, income, smoking, alcohol, BMI, and education