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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the civil servants cohort according to quintiles of average PM2.5 concentration during 1989–2008

From: Chronic exposure to particulate matter and risk of cardiovascular mortality: cohort study from Taiwan

Characteristic Quintile
1 2 3 4 5
No. of participants 5,520 3,847 8,267 19,004 6,589
Range of average PM2.5 concentration, μg/m3 22.8–27.2 27.3–28.6 28.7–30.0 30.1–30.9 31.5–32.9
Mean PM2.5 in μg/m3 (SD) 25.8 (1.4) 28.3 (0.4) 29.6 (0.4) 30.4 (0.3) 32 (0.4)
Female sex (%) 47.3 38.7 39.2 44.5 42.6
Less than high-school education (%) 1.9 1.7 2.3 1.8 2.6
Marital status
 Married (%) 45.7 41.1 39.3 39.2 37.9
 Other (%) 54.3 58.9 60.7 60.8 62.1
Income in NT (%)
  ≤ $ 30,000 8.6 10.1 10.5 7.1 11.2
 $30,000-60,000 45.9 52.1 51.7 43 51.7
 $60,000-100,000 37.3 31.8 32.1 39.4 31.2
  > $100,000 8.2 6.1 5.8 10.5 5.9
Average age at recruitment in years (SD) 40.6 (10.4) 40.6 (10.7) 40.4 (10.4) 42.5 (10.5) 39.7 (10.8)
Smokers (%)
 Never 52.2 47.4 48.4 47.7 49.7
 Former 7.7 8 8.2 7.5 7
 Current 40.1 44.6 43.4 44.8 43.3
Habitual alcohol consumption (%) 72.4 75.3 73.7 74.6 73
Average body-mass indexa, % 22.7 23.1 23.9 22.8 22.8
  < 20.1 19 14.8 16.7 16.9 17.9
 20.1-27.5 75.1 78.6 76.6 77.7 76
  > 27.5 5.9 6.7 6.7 5.4 6.1
Serum triglyceride level (mg/dL) 113 116 116 113 117
Serum total cholesterol level (mg/dL) 197 194 195 197 197
Diabetes mellitus (%) 2.2 1.8 1.7 2.1 1.7
Hypertension (%) 9 9.8 9.6 10.2 8.9
History of cerebrovascular disease (%) 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3
History of heart disease (%) 4.4 5 5 5.2 4.5
Average GFRb (mL/min/1.73 m2) 83 83 82.8 83.1 82.9
  1. GFR glomerular filtration rate, NT National Taiwan dollars, SD standard deviation
  2. aCalculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared
  3. bCalculated using the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation: eGFR (mL/min/1•73 m2) = 175 × (Scr)-1•154 × (Age)-0•203 × (0•742 if female)