Skip to main content

Table 3 Associations between risk factors and obesity in preschool children using multivariate conditional logistic regression

From: Family-related risk factors of obesity among preschool children: results from a series of national epidemiological surveys in China

Variables Factor level of analysis Survey 1996 Survey 2006
OR (95 % CI) P OR (95 % CI) P
Birth weight <2500, 2500–4000 (ref.), 4000     
  4000 - - 1.609 (1.124–2.303) 0.0094
Gestational hypertension No (ref.), yes 20.538 (3.453–122.698) 0.0009 2.412 (1.029–5.653) 0.0428
Appetite Good, average (ref.), bad     
  Good 12.433 (5.562–27.793) <0.0001 6.266 (4.521–8.686)) <0.0001
Eating speeda Fast, average (ref.), slow     
  Fast 8.039 (3.599–17.960) <0.0001 4.351 (3.131–6.046) <0.0001
  Slow 0.173 (0.054–0.555) 0.0032 0.343 (0.225–0.522) <0.0001
Vegetable intake Not at all, occasional, often 0.533 (0.334–0.850) 0.0082 - -
Type/intensity of outdoor activitiesb Running or jumping, walking or cycling, slow walking or sitting (ref.)     
  Running or jumping 0.191 (0.066–0.847) 0.0022 0.595 (0.445–0.795) 0.0004
Daily time for TV viewing c Time (hr):≧2     
  1–2 - - 1.339 (1.003–1.789) 0.0477
  2 - - 2.154 (1.455–3.188) <0.0001
Father education College and over, high school and below (ref.) - - 0.661 (0.494–0.886) 0.0056
Father BMId <24 (ref.), 24 2.326 (1.279–4.232) 0.0057 2.124 (1.634–2.762) <0.0001
Mother BMId <24 (ref.), 24 2.495 (1.307–4.761) 0.0056 1.529 (1.089–2.146) 0.0142
Raising kids mainly by Parents (ref.), grandparents, nannies     
  Grandparents - - 1.439 (1.050–1.973) 0.0236
Father family history of obesitye No (ref.), yes 1.889 (1.045–3.414) 0.0352 - -
  1. Numbers contributing to the multivariate analyses: 356 pairs of obese and non-obese children aged 3–7 years in 1996 and 1184 pairs in 2006
  2. Chi-squares of Likelihood ratio and Score for testing global null hypothesis: 300.95 (P <0.0001) and 208.52 (P <0.0001) for survey 1996 respectively and 851.44 (P <0.0001) and 644.02 (P <0.0001) for survey 2006 respectively
  3. BMI Body mass index, OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval
  4. aEating speed, fast (<15 min), average (15–30), slow (30)
  5. bRunning including running, jumping, climbing stair, et al.; sitting meaning not or hardly playing when others did
  6. cTime for TV viewing including video game in 2006
  7. dBMI calculated as weight (kg) divided by height (m) squared based on self-reported weight and height, and overweight in Chinese adults was defined using the cutoffs of 24 kg/m2
  8. eObesity history among three generations of parents, including their grandparents, their parents and their siblings, brothers and sisters