Skip to main content

Table 2 Distribution of characteristics by one- and multiple-testers and factors associated with multiple HIV-testing relative to one-time testers (N = 1451)

From: Frequency of HIV-testing and factors associated with multiple lifetime HIV-testing among a rural population of Zambian men

  Details Men with a history of ever-testing One-time Testers (n, row %) Multiple Testers (n, row %) Minimally-adjusted PR (95 % CI)b Adjusted PR (95 % CI)c p-valued
Age 15-19 159 (11.0) 100 (62.9) 59 (37.1) 0.62 (0.48-0.76) 0.63 (0.49-0.77) <0.01 (0.03)
20-29 489 (33.7) 195 (39.9) 294 (60.1) 1.0 1.0
30-39 405 (27.9) 151 (37.3) 254 (62.7) 1.06 (0.95-1.18) 1.05 (0.94-1.16)  
≥40 398 (27.4) 171 (43.0) 227 (57.0) 0.95 (0.84-1.06) 0.95 (0.84-1.06)
Head of household No 424 (29.2) 216 (50.9) 208 (49.1) 1.0 1.0 0.06
Yes 1027 (70.8) 401 (39.0) 626 (61.0) 1.15 (1.00-1.30) 1.13 (0.98-1.28)
Religion Protestant 575 (39.6) 223 (38.8) 352 (61.2) 1.0 1.0 0.15
Catholic 386 (26.6) 180 (46.6) 206 (53.4) 0.87 (0.77-0.98) 0.89 (0.79-0.99)
SDA 235 (16.2) 100 (42.6) 135 (57.4) 0.90 (0.78-1.03) 0.89 (0.77-1.01)
Other 208 (14.3) 90 (43.3) 118 (56.7) 0.92 (0.79-1.05) 0.99 (0.86-1.11)
None 47 (3.2) 24 (51.1) 23 (48.9) 0.78 (0.54-1.02) 0.86 (0.62-1.09)
Marital status Single 475 (32.7) 235 (49.5) 240 (50.5) 1.0 - -
Married/cohabiting 905 (62.4) 353 (39.0) 552 (61.0) 1.15 (0.99-1.31)
Ever married 71 (4.9) 29 (40.8) 42 (59.2) 1.13 (0.87-1.40)
Education No/Primary 589 (40.6) 270 (45.8) 319 (54.2) 1.0 1.0  
Incomplete secondary 515 (35.5) 232 (45.0) 283 (55.0) 1.08 (0.96-1.21) 1.11 (0.99-1.24) <0.01 (<0.01)
Secondary or higher 347 (23.9) 115 (33.1) 232 (66.9) 1.26 (1.11-1.41) 1.29 (1.13-1.44)  
Occupation None 555 (38.2) 289 (52.1) 266 (47.9) 1.0 1.0 <0.01
Agriculture (others land) 351 (24.2) 155 (44.2) 196 (55.8) 1.11 (0.96-1.27) 1.10 (0.95-1.26)
Agriculture (own land) 320 (22.1) 97 (30.3) 223 (69.7) 1.46 (1.28-1.65) 1.45 (1.27-1.63)
Services/Professional 225 (15.5) 76 (33.8) 149 (66.2) 1.27 (1.09-1.46) 1.19 (1.00-1.37)
SEP Group Lowest 263 (18.1) 104 (39.5) 159 (60.5) 1.0 - -
Low 264 (18.2) 121 (45.8) 143 (54.2) 0.91 (0.77-1.04)
Middle 336 (23.2) 150 (44.6) 186 (55.4) 0.90 (0.77-1.04)
High 311 (21.4) 139 (44.7) 172 (55.3) 0.92 (0.78-1.06)
Highest 277 (19.1) 103 (37.2) 174 (62.8) 1.05 (0.88-1.21)
Present continuously previous 6mths No 60 (4.1) 23 (38.3) 37 (61.7) 1.0 - -
Yes 1391 (95.9) 594 (42.7) 797 (57.3) 0.91 (0.72-1.09)
History of TB treatment No 1383 (95.3) 580 (41.9) 803 (58.1) 1.0 1.0 0.62
Yes 68 (4.7) 37 (54.4) 31 (45.6) 0.76 (0.55-0.97) 1.06 (0.84-1.28)
HIV Status Negative 1297 (93.0) 507 (39.1) 790 (60.9) 1.0 1.0 <0.01
Positive 98 (7.0) 84 (85.7) 14 (14.3) 0.20 (0.10-0.31) 0.22 (0.11-0.33)
Spousal Characteristics (N = 517)
Currently pregnant No 443 (85.7) 175 (39.5) 268 (60.5) 1.0 -- --
Yes 74 (14.3) 30 (40.5) 44 (59.5) 0.97 (0.77-1.17)
Has Children No No 20 (3.9) 13 (65.0) 1.0 - -
Yes Yes 497 (96.1) 299 (60.2) 0.93 (0.60-1.26)
Wife previously HIV-tested No 24 (4.6) 14 (58.3) 10 (41.7) 1.0 1.0 0.32
Yes 493 (95.4) 191 (38.7) 303 (61.3) 1.44 (0.75-2.12) 1.19 (0.73-1.66)
Cluster-level Characteristics
>50 % of men employed No 578 (39.8) 273 (47.2) 305 (52.8) 1.0 1.0 0.29
Yes 873 (60.2) 344 (39.4) 529 (60.6) 1.15 (0.97-1.34) 1.09 (0.92-1.25)  
>25 % mention 3+ ways to prevent HIV infection No 711 (49.0) 268 (37.7) 443 (62.3) 1.0 1.0 0.05
Yes 740 (51.0) 349 (47.2) 391 (52.8) 0.84 (0.72-0.95) 0.86 (0.74-0.98)  
HIV Prevalence <10 % 1160 (79.9) 483 (41.6) 677 (58.4) 1.0 - -
10 %+ 291 (20.1) 134 (46.0) 157 (54.0) 0.96 (0.79-1.13)
ART Available at Health Facilitya No 676 (49.3) 309 (45.7) 367 (54.3) 1.0 - -
Yes 694 (50.7) 276 (39.8) 418 (60.2) 1.09 (0.95-1.24)
  1. a81 missing data N = 1370; bAdjusted for age, urban/rural residence and district; cAdjusted for variables higher in the conceptual framework (Fig. 1); dFor adjusted model and based on LRT, p-value in brackets is assuming linear trend
  2. eN=1395 as 56 men were missing data on self-reported HIV status