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Table 1 Distribution of characteristics by never- and multiple-testers and factors associated with multiple HIV-testing relative to never-testers (N = 1751)

From: Frequency of HIV-testing and factors associated with multiple lifetime HIV-testing among a rural population of Zambian men

  Details Multiple-testers & never-testers (n, col %) Never-Testers (n, row %) Multiple Testers (n, row %) Minimally-adjusted PR (95 % CI)b Adjusted PR (95 % CI)c p-valued
Age 15-19 387 (22.1) 328 (84.8) 59 (15.2) 0.28 (0.21-0.36) 0.29 (0.22-0.37) <0.01
20-29 553 (31.6) 259 (46.8) 294 (53.2) 1.0 1.0
30-39 391 (22.3) 137 (35.0) 254 (65.0) 1.23 (1.09-1.36) 1.25 (1.12-1.39) (<0.01)
≥40 420 (24.0) 193 (46.0) 227 (54.0) 1.02 (0.89-1.14) 1.04 (0.91-1.16)
Head of household No 680 (38.8) 472 (69.4) 208 (30.6) 1.0 1.0 0.06
Yes 1071 (61.2) 445 (41.5) 626 (58.5) 1.28 (1.09-1.46) 1.15 (0.97-1.32)
Religion Protestant 684 (39.1) 332 (48.5) 352 (51.5) 1.0 1.0 0.01
Catholic 435 (24.8) 229 (52.6) 206 (47.4) 0.89 (0.78-1.00) 0.91 (0.80-1.01)
SDA 257 (14.7) 122 (47.5) 135 (52.5) 1.01 (0.88-1.15) 0.98 (0.85-1.11)
Other 305 (17.4) 187 (61.3) 118 (38.7) 0.78 (0.66-0.90) 0.83 (0.71-0.96)
None 70 (4.0) 47 (67.1) 23 (32.9) 0.59 (0.38-0.79) 0.69 (0.47-0.90)
Marital status Single 762 (43.5) 522 (68.5) 240 (31.5) 1.0 1.0 0.02
Married/cohabiting 913 (52.1) 361 (39.5) 552 (60.5) 1.33 (1.12-1.53) 1.23 (1.03-1.43)
Ever married 76 (4.3) 34 (44.7) 42 (55.3) 1.26 (0.94-1.59) 1.30 (0.99-1.61)
Education No/Primary 745 (42.5) 426 (57.2) 319 (42.8) 1.0 1.0  
Incomplete secondary 649 (37.1) 366 (56.4) 283 (43.6) 1.29 (1.13-1.44) 1.26 (1.11-1.40) <0.01
Secondary or higher 357 (20.4) 125 (35.0) 232 (65.0) 1.61 (1.41-1.81) 1.59 (1.38-1.81) (<0.01)
Occupation None 802 (45.8) 536 (66.8) 266 (33.2) 1.0 1.0 <0.01
Agriculture (others land) 378 (21.6) 182 (48.1) 196 (51.9) 1.17 (0.99-1.34) 1.11 (0.94-1.27)
Agriculture (own land) 357 (20.4) 134 (37.5) 223 (62.5) 1.39 (1.19-1.60) 1.30 (1.11-1.48)
Services/Professional 214 (12.2) 65 (30.4) 149 (69.6) 1.53 (1.30-1.77) 1.29 (1.08-1.50)
SEP Group Lowest 343 (19.6) 184 (53.6) 159 (46.4) 1.0 1.0 0.06
Low 331 (18.9) 188 (56.8) 143 (43.2) 1.01 (0.83-1.18) 0.99 (0.93-1.14)
Middle 365 (20.8) 179 (49.0) 186 (51.0) 1.24 (1.03-1.44) 1.19 (1.02-1.37)
High 361 (20.6) 189 (52.4) 172 (47.6) 1.21 (1.01-1.42) 1.09 (0.92-1.26)
Highest 351 (20.0) 177 (50.4) 174 (49.6) 1.32 (1.08-1.55) 1.04 (0.84-1.25)
Present continuously previous 6mths No 87 (5.0) 50 (57.5) 37 (42.5) 1.0 - -
Yes 1664 (95.0) 867 (52.1) 797 (47.9) 1.12 (0.85-1.40)   
History of TB treatment No 1702 (97.2) 899 (52.8) 803 (47.2) 1.0 - -
Yes 49 (2.8) 18 (36.7) 31 (63.3) 1.15 (0.88-1.43) - -
Spousal Characteristics (N = 511)
Currently pregnant No 447 (87.6) 179 (40.0) 268 (60.0) 1.0 - -
Yes 63 (12.4) 19 (30.2) 44 (69.8) 1.16 (0.95-1.38)
Has Children No 27 (5.3) 14 (51.9) 13 (48.2) 1.0 1.0 0.20
Yes 483 (94.7) 183 (37.9) 300 (62.1) 1.34 (0.76-1.91) 1.26 (0.76-1.76)
Wife previously HIV-tested No 56 (11.0) 46 (82.1) 10 (17.9) 1.0 1.0 <0.01
Yes 454 (89.0 151 (33.3) 303 (66.7) 3.53 (1.50-5.57) 3.02 (1.37-4.66)
Cluster-level Characteristics
>50 % of men employed No 684 (39.1) 379 (55.4) 305 (44.6) 1.0 - -
Yes 1067 (60.9) 538 (50.4) 529 (49.6) 1.10 (0.91-1.29) - -
>25 % mention 3+ ways to prevent HIV infection No 878 (50.1) 435 (49.5) 443 (50.5) 1.0 - -
Yes 873 (49.9) 482 (55.2) 391 (44.8) 0.90 (0.76-1.04) - -
HIV Prevalence <10 % 1381 (78.9) 704 (51.0) 677 (49.0) 1.0 1.0 0.14
10 %+ 370 (21.1) 213 (57.6) 157 (42.4) 0.87 (0.70-1.03) 0.87 (0.70-1.04)
ART Available at Health Facilitya No 858 (51.8) 491 (57.2) 367 (42.8) 1.0 1.0 <0.01
Yes 799 (48.2) 381 (47.7) 418 (52.3) 1.30 (1.12-1.48) 1.29 (1.12-1.45)
  1. a94 missing data N = 1657; bAdjusted for age, urban/rural residence and district; cAdjusted for variables higher in the conceptual framework (Fig. 1); dFor adjusted model and based on LRT, p-value in brackets is assuming linear trend
  2. eever-married means either widowed, separated or divorced