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Table 2 Reviews that examined the association between health literacy and adherence in older adults (n = 11)

From: The association of health literacy with adherence in older adults, and its role in interventions: a systematic meta-review

Authors Main focus Total articles (on adherence/specific to this meta-review) Conclusion on association between health literacy and adherence in older adults
Al Sayah et al. [46] Improve understanding of relationship between health literacy or numeracy and health outcomes in diabetes. 34 (5/5) No association with self-care activities.
Berkman et al. [38] Assess whether low health literacy links to poor health care usage, health outcomes, costs, and disparities in outcomes among all age groups. 111 (17/8) Evidence of an association was inconsistent.
Fransen et al. [39] Explore possible associations between health literacy, diabetes self-management, and possible mediators. 11 (11/7a) Very limited evidence for an association with diabetes self-management.
Gellad et al. [40] Identification of nonfinancial barriers to medication adherence in older adults. 9 (1/1) No general conclusions about health literacy and adherence are drawn.
Keller et al. [41] Consider how low health literacy relates to disease state control or medication adherence. 10 (4/3) Conflicting results about link with adherence.
Lewis [42] Understand factors associated with adherence to medication in blacks with hypertension. 18 (18/1) No association was found.
Loke et al. [21] Review links between health literacy and cardiovascular/diabetes medication adherence. 9 (9/7a) No consistent relationship was found with either condition.
Ostini and Kairuz [45] Determine what are factors that may influence the possible relationship between health literacy and medication non-adherence. 24 (24b/11) No consistent relationship was found.
Wawrzyniak et al. [44] Study the current state of knowledge regarding health literacy and health outcomes of HIV-infected individuals. 15 (10/1) Inconsistent: Some evidence for an association.
Weekes [43] Overview of health literacy of African American adults. 23 (9/1) Health literacy influences adherence to medical protocols.
Zhang et al. [37] Meta-analysis to estimate effect size of the relationship between health literacy and medication adherence. 35 (35/19) A weak positive association was found.
  1. aIncluding one relevant intervention study
  2. bOne of these 24 studies is the review of Loke et al. [21] that is also included in this meta-review. The other 23 articles were original research