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Table 1 Participant characteristics by site and sex (mean ± SD)

From: A comparison of indices of glucose metabolism in five black populations: data from modeling the epidemiologic transition study (METS)

Men Ghana South Africa Jamaica Seychelles United States Total
(53) (43) (59) (53) (74) (282)
Age (y) 36.3 ± 6.6 31.8 ± 6.2* 34.2 ± 5.7 35.2 ± 5.6 35.6 ± 6.6 34.8 ± 6.3
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 22.1 ± 2.5*** 22.6 ± 5.9*** 23.2 ± 5.0*** 25.6 ± 4.3*** 29.6 ± 8.0 25.0 ± 6.3
Waist Circumference (cm) 78.5 ± 7.1*** 79.1 ± 15.7*** 80.0 ± 13.8*** 85.5 ± 10.5*** 98.5 ± 22.5*** 85.5 ± 17.4***
Body Fat (%) 16.0 ± 5.4*** 19.5 ± 8.0*** 19.5 ± 8.2*** 23.0 ± 7.3*** 30.9 ± 8.3*** 22.5 ± 9.2***
MVPA (min/day, 1-min bouts) 47.1 ± 21.7 53.5 ± 24.5** 26.2 ± 24.5 41.3 ± 27.3 34.8 ± 37.5 39.5 ± 29.7
MVPA (min/day 10-min bouts) 22.2 ± 14.8 28.0 ± 16.3 10.8 ± 19.5 20.9 ± 17.5 21.0 ± 35.1 20.2 ± 23.7
Sedentary (total min for day) 192.0 ± 40.0 204.2 ± 38.6 227.6 ± 61.0** 199.2 ± 44.1 206.0 ± 46.6 206.3 ± 48.4
Education (y) 9.5 ± 3.7*** 10.0 ± 2.5*** 10.7 ± 2.5*** 12.1 ± 2.1 12.8 ± 1.9 11.2 ± 2.9
Manual Laborer (%) 66.7 75.6 62.8 65.9 69.4 67.9
Glucose (mmol/L) 5.6 ± 0.6 4.6 ± 0.8*** 5.3 ± 0.5** 5.6 ± 0.8 5.8 ± 1.1 5.5 ± 0.9
Insulin (pmol/L) 79.8 ± 28.1 92.7 ± 109.8 87.0 ± 43.5 96.6 ± 56.7 138.0 ± 91.4 102.0 ± 75.0
Leptin (μg/L) 4.9 ± 6.3** 5.4 ± 8.8* 5.4 ± 8.4** 7.1 ± 6.9 11.2 ± 13.4 7.1 ± 9.6
Adiponectin (μg/mL) 9.2 ± 3.8 9.7 ± 4.3 5.8 ± 4.0 5.3 ± 3.0* 7.7 ± 4.7 7.5 ± 4.4
Log HOMA 1.0 ± 0.4*** 0.8 ± 0.6*** 1.0 ± 0.6*** 1.1 ± 0.6* 1.4 ± 0.7 1.1 ± 0.6
Diabetes (%) 0 0 0 4.0 (n = 2) 6.7 (n = 5) 2.4 (n = 7)
Women Ghana South Africa Jamaica Seychelles United States Total
(75) (88) (70) (77) (75) (385)
Age (y) 35.7 ± 6.2 32.5 ± 6.5* 34.8 ± 5.7 35.7 ± 6.5 35.5 ± 6.0 34.8 ± 6.3
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 25.8 ± 6.2*** 31.6 ± 8.5 28.5 ± 6.8*** 28.2 ± 5.8*** 34.8 ± 9.2 29.9 ± 8.0
Waist Circumference (cm) 85.1 ± 12.7*** 97.3 ± 18.4 89.3 ± 13.7*** 88.9 ± 11.7*** 104.0 ± 20.3 93.1 ± 17.2
Body Fat (%) 35.3 ± 6.3*** 42.1 ± 7.2* 38.4 ± 6.5*** 38.6 ± 7.0*** 45.0 ± 6.2 40.0 ± 7.5
MVPA (min/day, 1-min bouts) 27.3 ± 18.4*** 19.9 ± 15.6 14.6 ± 10.9 20.3 ± 11.8 14.3 ± 16.3 19.4 ± 15.6
MVPA (min/day, 10-min bouts) 12.2 ± 11.5*** 9.2 ± 10.5 5.5 ± 6.7 8.2 ± 8.6 5.9 ± 10.3 8.3 ± 9.9
Sedentary time (total min for day) 189.4 ± 33.6 221.1 ± 44.5 207.5 ± 47.5 191.5 ± 46.2 212.6 ± 43.3 205.2 ± 45.7
Education (y) 7.0 ± 4.2*** 10.0 ± 2.3*** 11.3 ± 2.3*** 13.1 ± 2.4 13.4 ± 2.6 10.9 ± 3.7
Manual Laborer (%)a 93.0 87.0 61.0 15.2 33.3 58.7
Glucose (mmol/L) 5.5 ± 0.6 4.6 ± 0.8*** 5.1 ± 0.5 5.4 ± 1.4 5.5 ± 1.9 5.2 ± 1.1
Insulin (pmol/L) 103.3 ± 45.8*** 157.1 ± 96.3 131.1 ± 62.4** 133.1 ± 77.3** 175.6 ± 86.0 140.7 ± 80.0
Leptin (μg/L) 26.5 ± 21.0*** 26.5 ± 21.0 35.5 ± 22.1 28.3 ± 20.6** 41.4 ± 19.2 32.8 ± 21.6
Adiponectin (μg/mL) 10.2 ± 4.3 12.0 ± 6.5* 8.2 ± 5.3 7.2 ± 4.5 9.2 ± 5.8 9.6 ± 5.6
Log HOMA 1.2 ± 0.5*** 1.3 ± 0.7*** 1.3 ± 0.5** 1.3 ± 0.6** 1.7 ± 0.5 1.4 ± 0.6
Diabetes (0 = no;1 = yes) 1.0 (n = 1) 2.2 (n = 2) 1.4 (n = 1) 2.6 (n = 2) 12.0 (n = 9) 3.9 (n = 15)
  1. Significantly different from USA * p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, a significantly different across sites p < 0.001, chi-squared test