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Table 2 Qualitative findings by main overarching theme

From: Understanding how environmental enhancement and conservation activities may benefit health and wellbeing: a systematic review

Ref Ref N. Method Quality Personal achievement Personal/ social identify Developing knowledge Benefits of place Social contact Physical benefits Physical activity Spirituality Psychological restoration Risks/ negatives
Birch 2005 [48] 3 Interviews Poor X    X X   X   X  
BTCV 2010 [38] 19 Interviews Poor X   X X X X   X X X
X   X X X     X X
Burls 2007 [34] 11 Focus Groups Poor X X X X X X X X X  
Carter and O'Brien 2008 [39] NR "Qualitative evaluation" Poor X X X X X   X   X  
Christie 2004 [49] 18 Interviews Poor X X X X X    X X X
Gooch 2005 [35] 85 Interviews Poor X X X X X     X X
Halpenny and Caissie 2003 [50] 10 Interviews Good X    X X     X  
Miller et al. 2002 [37] 30 Focus Groups, ethnographic Poor X   X X X     X X
O'Brien et al. 2010 [54] 88 Interviews Good X   X X X X   X X  
O'Brien et al. 2011 [53] 10 Ethnographic Good X X X X X X X X X  
Townsend and Marsh 2004 [52] 18 Interviews Poor X   X   X X X   X  
X   X X X X X   X  
Townsend 2006 [51] 35 Interviews Poor X    X X   X   X  
Wilson 2009 [32] 29 Interviews Poor X X X X X     X X