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Table 6 Estimated unadjusted odds ratios (OR) using multilevel unordered multinomial regression for patterns of health compromising behaviurs (N = 1046)

From: The different effects of neighbourhood and individual social capital on health-compromising behaviours in women during pregnancy: a multi-level analysis

  Stable risk behaviour group (Ref: Stable healthy behaviour) Positive behavioural change (Ref: Stable risk behaviour)
  Smoking Alcohol consumption Inadequate diet Smoking Alcohol consumption Inadequate diet
ORa (95 % CI) ORa (95 % CI) ORa (95 % CI) ORa (95 % CI) ORa (95 % CI) ORa (95 % CI)
Neighbourhood-level variables       
Neighbourhood social capital       
  Low social capital   (1st tertile) 0.79 (0.48; 1.33) 1.82 (0.77; 4.32) 1.53 (1.08; 2.17) 1.07 (0.60; 1.02) 0.66 (0.30; 1.42) 0.71 (0.52;0.97)
  Moderate social capital   (2nd tertile) 1.05 (0.66; 1.67) 1.83 (0.79; 4.24) 1.05 (0.72; 1.54) 1.17 (0.69; 1.97) 0.66 (0.31; 1.38) 0.99 (0.72; 1.38)
Social class       
  Low social class   (1st tertile) 1.35 (0.80; 2.29) 1.65 (0.77; 3.54) 1.69 (1.18; 2.41) 0.52 (0.29; 0.92) 0.66 (0.30; 1.42) 0.58 (0.42; 0.80)
  Moderate social class   (2nd tertile) 1.79 (1.09; 2.92) 0.84 (0.35; 2.01) 1.39 (0.96; 2.01) 0.51 (0.31; 0.87) 0.67 (0.31; 1.38) 0.61 (0.45; 0.83)
Individual-level variables       
Individual Social Capital       
  Social support   (per 10 points) 0.98 (0.97; 0.99) 0.98 (0.97; 1.00) 0.98 (0.97; 0.99) 1.02 (1.01; 1.03) 1.00 (0.99; 1.02) 1.13 (1.04; 1.22)
  Social network       
   0–1 relatives 1.99 (1.26; 3.14) 0.86 (0.44; 1.66) 1.46 (1.08; 1.98) 0.45 (0.29; 0.71) 1.52 (0.79; 2.92) 1.46 (1.11; 1.91)
  Social network       
   0–1 friends 0.91 (0.58; 1.43) 0.83 (0.40; 1.69) 1.72 (1.21; 2.45) 0.87 (0.53; 1.43) 1.05 (0.53; 2.09) 0.94 (0.69; 1.28)
Socioeconomic variables       
  Marital status       
   Has a partner, not living    with him 1.16 (0.72; 1.86) 1.16 (0.53; 2.52) 0.93 (0.65; 1.33) 0.97 (0.57; 1.65) 1.73 (0.89; 3.36) 1.18 (0.87; 1.61)
   Single without partner 2.52 (1.25; 5.08) 1.66 (0.49; 5.68) 2.40 (1.35; 4.26) 0.91 (0.41; 2.02) 1.04 (0.31; 3.58) 0.59 (0.33; 1.07)
  Family income       
   < 1 BMWb 1.06 (0.69;1.64) 0.99 (0.48; 2.03) 2.27 (1.67; 3.08) 0.85 (0.51; 1.40) 0.39 (0.17; 0.94) 0.64 (0.48; 0.85)
  Years of schooling       
   0–4 years 3.74 (2.05; 6.81) 0.64 (0.14; 3.04) 2.22 (1.44; 3.44) 0.42 (0.22; 0.81) 1.11 (0.41; 3.00) 0.51 (0.34; 0.76)
   5–8 years 2.65 (1.60; 4.37) 2.82 (1.30; 60.8) 1.92 (1.38; 2.67) 0.49 (0.30; 0.81) 0.30 (0.15; 0.57) 0.59 (0.44; 0.78)
Number of children       
2 children 1.07 (0.65; 1.75) 1.57 (0.74; 3.34) 0.92 (0.65; 1.31) 0.81 (0.48; 1.38) 0.68 (0.34; 1.35) 0.87 (0.64; 1.18)
3 or more children 1.80 (1.11; 2.90) 1.30 (0.56; 3.04) 1.37 (0.95; 1.97) 0.56 (0.32; 0.98) 0.52 (0.22; 1.25) 0.78 (0.56; 1.08)
 Occupational context       
   Without paid work 1.20 (0.79; 1.81) 2.11 (0.99; 4.52) 1.92 (1.42; 2.63) 1.14 (0.71; 1.84) 0.41 (0.22; 0.77) 0.85 (0.65; 1.12)
Demographic variables       
  Age       
   13–19 0.67 (0.35; 1.27) 3.37 (0.92; 12.41) 2.17 (1.37; 3.46) 1.83 (0.92; 3.67) 0.33 (0.14; 0.75) 0.78 (0.52; 1.18)
   20–30 0.80 (0.49; 1.33) 2.76 (0.82; 9.26) 1.52 (1.01; 2.27) 1.26 (0.69; 2.31) 0.20 (0.10; 0.43) 0.93 (0.66; 1.31)
  Ethnicity       
   Brown 1.19 (0.73; 1.93) 1.61 (0.74; 3.50) 1.83 (1.29; 2.61) 0.63 (0.39; 1.93) 0.70 (0.36; 1.39) 0.71 (0.53; 0.96)
   Black 1.53 (0.90; 2.60) 1.28 (0.50;   3.28) 1.92 (1.29; 2.87) 0.35 (0.18; 0.68) 0.58 (0.23; 1.45) 0.69 (0.48; 0.97)
  1. Reference categories are in Table 3
  2. aOR were estimated using unordered multinomial logit model
  3. b1 Brazilian Minimal Wage (BMW) = US$ 178.00 in 2008