Skip to main content

Table 5 Multilevel ordered multinomial regression of the effect of neighbourhood social capital on number of risk factors at baseline (N = 1057) and follow-up (N = 1046), controlling for individual factors

From: The different effects of neighbourhood and individual social capital on health-compromising behaviours in women during pregnancy: a multi-level analysis

  Baseline Follow-up
  Model 1b Model 2b Model 3b Model 4b Model 1b Model 2a Model 3b Model 4b
ORa (95 % CI) ORa (95 % CI) ORa (95 % CI) ORa (95 % CI) ORa (95 % CI) ORa (95 % CI) ORa (95 % CI) ORa (95 % CI)
Neighbourhood-level variables         
Neighbourhood social capital         
   Low social capital    (1st tertile) 1.33 (1.01;1.77) 1.26 (0.96;1.67) 1.32 (0.99;1.75) 1.25 (0.91;1.72) 1.21 (0.89;1.64) 1.19 (0.88;1.61) 1.21 (0.89;1.64) 1.35 (0.97;1.90)
   Moderate social capital    (2nd tertile) 1.07 (0.79;1.44) 1.03 (0.77;1.38) 1.05 (0.78;1.40) 1.00 (0.73;1.36) 0.98 (0.71;1.35) 0.99 (0.72;1.36) 1.02 (0.74;1.41) 1.18 (0.86;1.62)
Social class         
   Low social class    (1st tertile) 1.17 (0.88;1.55)     1.45 (1.05;2.01) 1.57 (1.16;2.12) 1.55 (1.15;2.10) 1.51 (1.11;2.07)
   Moderate social class    (2nd tertile) 0.89 (0.66;1.20)     1.21 (0.89;1.64) 1.41 (1.03;1.94) 1.42 (1.03;1.97) 1.36 (0.97;1.90)
Individual-level variables         
Individual Social Capital         
   Social support    (per 10 points)   0.84 (0.77;0.90) 0.84 (0.78;0.91) 0.84 (0.77;0.90)   0.89 (0.82;0.96) 0.90 (0.84;0.98) 0.89 (0.82;0.96)
Social network         
   0–1 relatives   1.29 (0.97;1.60)     1.26 (0.98;1.63)   
   Social network         
   0–1 friends   1.11 (0.84;1.46)       
Socioeconomic variables         
Marital status         
   Has a partner, not living    with him    1.19 (0.90;1.58) 1.12 (0.84;1.51)    1.21 (0.89;1.66) 1.11 (0.81;1.51)
   Single without partner    1.95 (1.16;3.28) 1.87 (1.11;3.13)    2.28 (1.36;3.83) 2.30 (1.36;3.86)
Family income         
    < 1 BMWc    0.94 (0.72;1.23)     1.27 (0.96;1.67)  
Years of schooling         
   0–4 years    1.76 (1.22;2.55) 1.85 (1.26;2.71)    1.80 (1.20;2.70) 2.16 (1.50;3.18)
   5–8 years    1.64 (1.27;2.13) 1.64 (1.26;2.13)    1.68 (1.27;2.22) 1.81 (1.37;2.39)
Number of children         
2 children        1.06 (0.78;1.44)  
3 or more children        1.22 (0.86;1.72)  
Occupational context         
   Without paid work    1.49 (1.16;1.91) 1.43 (1.11;1.83)    1.18 (0.91;1.53)  
Demographic variables         
   Age         
   13–19     1.40 (0.94;2.10)     1.59 (1.05;2.41)
   20–30     1.28 (0.94;1.76)     1.45 (1.04;2.03)
Ethnicity         
   Brown     1.18 (0.90;1.55)     1.47 (1.10;1.97)
   Black     1.24 (0.90;1.71)     1.66 (1.19;2.33)
  1. Reference categories are in Table 3
  2. aOR were estimated using ordered multinomial cumulative logit model. The reference group was ‘Risk factors = 0’. The coefficients estimated indicated the likelihood of moving into a higher category of number of risk behaviors
  3. bVariables adjusted for all other variables in the model
  4. c1 Brazilian Minimal Wage (BMW) = US$ 178.00 in 2008