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Table 4 Distribution of neighbourhood and individual variables and estimated unadjusted odds ratios (OR) for number of risk behaviors groups at follow-up (N = 1046)

From: The different effects of neighbourhood and individual social capital on health-compromising behaviours in women during pregnancy: a multi-level analysis

  0 1 2 3 Total ORa 95 % CI P-value
  n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)    
Neighbourhood-level variables         
Neighbourhood social capital         
 Low social capital (1st tertile) 186 (30.6) 98 (28.1) 22 (29.3) 4 (28.6) 310 (29.6) 1.34 0.98;1.83 0.064
 Moderate social capital (2nd tertile) 193 (31.7) 132 (37.8) 27 (36.0) 7 (50.0) 359 (34.3) 1.05 0.76;1.46 0.775
 High social capital (3rd tertile) 229 (37.7) 119 (34.1) 26 (34.7) 3 (21.4) 377 (36.1) 1 1  
Social class         
 Low social class (1st tertile) 175 (28.8) 107 (30.7) 25 (33.3) 6 (42.8) 313 (29.9) 1.67 1.23;2.26 0.001
 Moderate social class (2nd tertile) 185 (30.4) 130 (37.2) 31 (41.4) 4 (28.6) 350 (33.5) 1.50 1.09;2.05 0.012
 High social class (3rd tertile) 248 (40.8) 112 (32.1) 19 (25.3) 4 (28.6) 383 (36.6) 1 1  
Individual -level variables         
Individual social capital         
 Social networks         
  Relatives         
   0–1 relatives 351 (57.7) 226 (64.8) 47 (62.7) 12 (85.7) 636 (60.8) 1.35 1.05;1.73 0.018
   2 or more relatives 257 (42.3) 123 (35.2) 28 (37.3) 2 (14.3) 410 (39.2) 1 1  
  Friends         
   0–1 friends 444 (73.0) 261 (74.8) 56 (74.7) 12 (85.7) 773 (73.9) 1.11 0.84;1.47 0.452
   2 or more friends 164 (27.0) 88 (25.2) 19 (25.3) 2 (14.3) 273 (26.1) 1 1  
  M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)    
Social support (per 10 points) 69.26 (14.64) 67.08 (16.52) 63.10 (17.45) 59.17 (26.25) 67.96 (15.79) 0.87 0.80;0.94 <0.001
Socioeconomic variables         
Marital status         
 Married, living with partner 441 (72.5) 247 (70.8) 44 (58.7) 9 (64.3) 741 (70.8) 1 1  
 Has a partner, not living with him 142 (23.4) 83 (23.8) 19 (25.3) 3 (21.4) 247 (23.6) 1.11 0.84;1.48 0.468
 Single without partner 25 (4.1) 19 (5.4) 12 (16.0) 2 (14.3) 58 (5.5) 2.39 1.44;3.96 <0.001
Number of children         
 1 child 296 (48.7) 159 (45.6) 29 (38.7) 5 (35.7) 489 (46.7) 1 1  
 2 children 190 (31.3) 99 (28.4) 20 (26.7) 6 (42.9) 315 (30.1) 1.04 0.78;1.38 0.809
 3 or more children 122 (20.1) 91 (26.1) 26 (34.7) 3 (21.4) 242 (23.1) 1.54 1.14;2.06 0.005
Years of schooling         
 0–4 years 75 (12.3) 57 (16.3) 15 (20.0) 3 (21.4) 150 (14.3) 2.07 1.43;3.00 <0.001
 5–8 years 242 (39.8) 172 (49.3) 37 (49.3) 9 (64.3) 460 (44.0) 1.83 1.40;2.39 <0.001
 9 years or more 291 (47.9) 120 (34.4) 23 (30.7) 2 (14.3) 436 (41.7) 1 1  
Family incomeb         
 0–1 BMW 153 (25.2) 127 (36.4) 28 (37.3) 4 (28.6) 312 (29.8) 1.62 1.25;2.10 <0.001
 More than 1 BMW 455 (74.8) 222 (63.6) 47 (62.7) 10 (71.4) 734 (70.2) 1 1  
Occupational context         
 No paid work 346 (56.9) 222 (63.6) 49 (65.3) 10 (71.4) 627 (59.9) 1.36 1.06;1.74 0.016
 Paid work 262 (43.1) 127 (36.4) 26 (34.7) 4 (28.6) 419 (40.1) 1 1  
Demographic variables         
Age         
 13–19 115 (18.9) 85 (24.4) 16 (21.3) 4 (28.6) 220 (21.0) 1.53 1.05;2.23 0.028
 20–30 360 (59.2) 202 (57.9) 47 (62.7) 7 (50.0) 616 (58.9) 1.23 0.89;1.69 0.204
 More than 30 133 (21.9) 62 (17.8) 12 (16.0) 3 (21.4) 210 (20.1) 1 1  
Ethnicity         
 White 237 (39.0) 100 (28.7) 19 (25.3) 2 (14.3) 358 (34.2) 1   
 Brown 246 (40.5) 159 (45.6) 34 (45.3) 8 (57.1) 447 (42.8) 1.61 1.22;2.14 0.001
 Black 125 (20.6) 90 (25.8) 22 (29.3) 4 (28.6) 241 (23.0) 1.83 1.32;2.54 <0.001
  1. aOR were estimated using ordered multinomial cumulative logit model. The reference group was ‘No behavioural risk factor’. The coefficients estimated indicated the likelihood of moving into a higher category of the number of behavioural risk factors
  2. b1 Brazilian Minimal Wage (BMW) = US$ 178.00 in 2008