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Table 3 Distribution of neighbourhood and individual variables and estimated unadjusted odds ratios (OR) for number of risk behaviors groups at baseline (N = 1057)

From: The different effects of neighbourhood and individual social capital on health-compromising behaviours in women during pregnancy: a multi-level analysis

  0 1 2 3 Total ORa 95 % CI p-value
  n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)    
Neighbourhood-level variables         
Neighbourhood social capital         
  Low social capital (1st tertile) 121 (31.9) 153 (28.4) 35 (30.2) 7 (30.4) 316 (29.9) 1.31 0.99;1.73 0.058
  Moderate social capital (2nd tertile) 112 (29.6) 198 (36.7) 40 (34.5) 10 (43.5) 360 (34.1) 1.02 0.77;1.37 0.870
  High social capital (3rd tertile) 146 (38.5) 188 (34.9) 41 (35.3) 6 (26.1) 381 (36.0) 1 1  
 Social class         
  Low social class (1st tertile) 123 (32.5) 150 (27.8) 36 (31.0) 5 (21.7) 314 (29.7) 1.22 0.92;1.61 0.170
  Moderate social class (2nd tertile) 114 (30.1) 188 (34.9) 39 (33.6) 12 (52.2) 353 (33.4) 0.94 0.70;1.25 0.651
  High social class (3rd tertile) 142 (37.5) 201 (37.3) 41 (35.3) 6 (26.1) 390 (36.9) 1 1  
Individual -level variables         
Individual social capital         
  Social networks         
   Relatives         
    0–1 relatives 212 (55.9) 340 (63.1) 79 (68.1) 15 (65.2) 646 (61.1) 1.39 1.10;1.77 0.007
    2 or more relatives 167 (44.1) 199 (36.9) 37 (31.9) 8 (34.8) 411 (38.9) 1 1  
   Friends         
    0–1 friends 268 (70.7) 409 (75.9) 88 (75.9) 18 (78.3) 783 (74.1) 1.27 0.97;1.65 0.080
    2 or more friends 111 (29.3) 130 (24.1) 28 (24.1) 5 (21.7 274 (21.7) 1 1  
  M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)    
Social support (per 10 points) 70.72 (14.06) 67.28 (15.95) 65.63 (16.65) 62.43 (18.46) 67.95 (15.80) 0.82 0.76;0.89 <0.001
Socioeconomic variables         
Marital status         
 Married, living with partner 277 (73.1) 384 (71.3) 76 (65.5) 13 (56.6) 750 (71.0) 1 1  
 Has a partner, not living with him 85 (22.4) 129 (23.9) 29 (25.0) 5 (21.7) 248 (23.4) 1.13 0.86;1.50 0.372
 Single without partner 17 (4.5) 26 (4.8) 11 (9.5) 5 (21.7) 59 (5.6) 2.01 1.20;3.37 0.008
Number of children         
 1 child 178 (47.0) 250 (46.4) 55 (47.4) 10 (43.5) 493 (46.6) 1 1  
 2 children 126 (33.2) 152 (28.2) 30 (25.9) 10 (43.5) 318 (30.1) 0.88 0.67;1.16 0.384
 3 or more children 75 (19.8) 137 (25.4) 31 (26.7) 3 (13.0) 246 (23.3) 1.20 0.90;1.62 0.218
Years of schooling         
 0–4 years 45 (11.9) 79 (14.7) 24 (20.7) 3 (13.0) 151 (14.3) 1.88 1.312.70 <0.001
 5–8 years 147 (38.8) 248 (46.0) 61 (52.6) 13 (56.5) 469 (44.4) 1.70 1.32;2.20 <0.001
 9 years or more 187 (49.3) 212 (39.3) 31 (26.7) 7 (30.4) 437 (41.3) 1 1  
Family incomeb         
 0–1 BMW 94 (24.8) 178 (33.0) 37 (31.9) 5 (21.7) 314 (29.7) 1.31 1.01;1.69 0.039
 More than 1 BMW 285 (75.2) 361 (67.0) 79 (78.1) 18 (78.3) 743 (70.3) 1 1  
Occupational context         
 No paid work 199 (52.5) 333 (61.8) 85 (73.3) 14 (60.9) 631 (59.7) 1.63 1.28;2.07 <0.001
 Paid work 180 (47.5) 206 (38.2) 31 (26.7) 9 (39.1) 426 (40.3) 1 1  
Demographic variables         
Age         
   13–19 66 (17.4) 121 (22.4) 27 (23.3) 6 (26.1) 220 (20.8) 1.50 1.04;2.16 0.029
   20–30 229 (60.4) 311 (57.7) 71 (61.2) 13 (56.5) 624 (59.0) 1.17 0.87;1.58 0.302
   More than 30 84 (22.2) 107 (19.9) 18 (15.5) 4 (17.4) 213 (20.2) 1 1  
Ethnicity         
   White 148 (39.1) 171 (31.7) 36 (31.0) 8 (34.8) 363 (34.3) 1   
   Brown 152 (40.1) 234 (43.4) 56 (48.3) 8 (37.8) 450 (42.6) 1.30 1.00;1.70 0.052
   Black 79 (20.8) 134 (24.9) 24 (20.7) 7 (30.4) 244 (23.1) 1.32 0.97;1.80 0.083
  1. aOR were estimated using ordered multinomial cumulative logit model. The reference group was ‘No behavioral risk factor’. The coefficients estimated indicated the likelihood of moving into a higher category of the number of risk of behaviors
  2. b1 Brazilian Minimal Wage (BMW) = US$ 178.00 in 2008