Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, individual social capital measures and health-compromising behaviours of the sample (N = 1046)

From: The different effects of neighbourhood and individual social capital on health-compromising behaviours in women during pregnancy: a multi-level analysis

  N (%)
Age (years)  
    13–19 220 (21.0)
    20–30 616 (58.9)
     > 30 210 (20.1)
Ethnicity  
    White 358 (34.3)
    Brown 447 (42.7)
    Black 241 (23.0)
Marital Status  
    Married, living with partner 741 (70.8)
    Has a partner, not living with him 247 (23.6)
    Single, without a partner 58 (5.6)
Number of children  
    1 child 489 (46.7)
    2 children 315 (30.1)
     ≥ 3 children 242 (23.2)
Years of Schooling  
    0 to 4 150 (14.3)
    5 to 8 460 (44.0)
     ≥ 9 436 (41.7)
Family income  
     < 1 BMW 312 (29.8)
     ≥ 1 BMW 734 (70.2)
Occupational context  
    No paid work 627 (59.9)
    Paid work 419 (40.1)
Social networks of relatives  
     < 2 636 (60.8)
     ≥ 2 410 (39.2)
Social networks of friends  
     < 2 773 (73.9)
     ≥ 2 273 (26.1)
  Mean (SD)
Social support 67.9 ± 15.8
    Material support 59.5 ± 21.0
    Affective support 92.7 ± 14.1
    Emotional support 61.1 ± 20.7
    Positive social interaction 64.6 ± 19.4
    Information support 61.8 ± 20.0
  N (%)
Smoking (Baseline) 189 (18.1)
Smoking (Follow-up) 114 (10.9)
Alcohol consumption (Baseline) 79 (7.6)
Alcohol consumption (Follow-up) 104 (9.9)
Inadequate diet (Baseline) 558 (53.4)
Inadequate diet (Follow-up) 323 (30.9
  1. Brazilian Minimal Wage (BMW) = US$ 178.00 in 2008