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Table 4 Main chronic health conditions of the 4 groups

From: Disease profiles of detainees in the Canton of Vaud in Switzerland: gender and age differences in substance abuse, mental health and chronic health conditions

Proportion of prisoners with diseases (ICD 10 codes) All Men Older adults Women Chi 2 Prevalence data in the general Swiss population
(N = 1664) (N = 1524) (N = 136) (N = 140) P-value
  % 95 % CI % 95 % CI % 95 % CI % 95 % CI Sex Age %
Infectious diseases 8.9 7.6-10.4 8.1 6.8-9.6 4.4 1.6-9.3 17.1 11.3-24.4 <0.001 NS  
  HIV (B20-B24-Z21) 2.7 1.9-3.6 2.1 1.1-2.9 1.5 0.1-5.2 9.0 5.0-15.3 <0.001 NS 0.3 [56]
  Hepatitis B (B16 B18) 1.5 1.0-2.2 1.6 1.0-2.3 0.0 0-2.6 0.7 0.01-3.9 NS NS 0.3 [57]
  Hepatitis C (B17 B18.2) 5.0 4.1-6.2 4.6 3.6-5.6 2.9 0.8-7.3 10.7 6.1-17.0 0.002 NS 0.7-1 [57]
  Tuberculosis (A15 A16) 0.36. 0.13-0.78 0.4 0.08-0.7 0.0   0.0   NS NS 0.007 [56]
  Tuberculosis sequelae (B90) 0.66 0.33-1.17 0.7 0.3-1.1 0.0   0.0     
Diseases of the musculoskeletal system (M10 M15 M54 M54.4) 12.8 11.2-14.5 12.8 11.1-14.5 21.3 14.7-29.2 12.8 7.8-19.5 NS 0.002  
  Back pain only (M54 M54.4) 9.0 7.8-10-6 9.0 7.6-10.6 14.7 9.2-21.8 10.7 6.1-17.0 NS 0.020 8.8 for 34 < age < 44; 11.9 for 55 < age < 64 [58]
Diseases of the digestive system (K21 K25-K 26 K29 K58 K70) 7.6 6.4-9.0 7.6 6.4-9.1 11.7 6.9-18.4 7.1 3.4-12.7 NS NS  
Diseases of the circulatory system (I05-I09 I10 I20 I25 I50 I87.2) 6.5 5.4-7.8 6.3 5.2-7.7 33.0 25.2-41.6 7.8 4.0-13.62 NS <0.001  
  Hypertension (I10) 5.5 4.3-6.6 5.3 4.2-6.5 25.7 18.6-33.9 6.4 2.9-11.8 NS <0.001 2.2-8.1 for age < 49; 23.6 for 50 < age < 64 [59]
Skin problems (B36.0 D10-D36 L20-30 L40 L50 L70) 8.1 6.8-9.5 8.3 6.9-9.8 5.8 2.5-11.2 5.7 2.5-11 NS NS  
Endocrine diseases (E66 E10-14 E78) 5.1 4.1-6.2 5.2 4.1-6.4 22.8 16.0-30.7 4.3 15.9-9.1 NS <0.001  
  Diabetes (E10-14) 2.1 1.5-2.9 2.1 1.5-3.0 13.23 8.0-20.1 2.1 0.4-6.1 NS <0.001 0.6-1.8 for age < 49; 5.8 for 50 < age < 64 [59]
Diseases of the respiratory system (J30 J32 J41 J45) 5.5 4.4-6.7 5.4 4.3-6.6 9.5 5.2-15.8 6.4 3-11.9 NS 0.029  
  Asthma (J45) 2.3 1.7-3.2 2.1 1.4-2.9 2.9 0.8-7.3 5.0 2.0-10.0 0.030 NS 2.5 for age 30-39 yrs [60]
  Bronchitis (J41) 2.1 1.5-2.9 2.2 1.5-3.1 5.9 2.5-11.2 1.4 0.1-5.0 NS 0.002  
Diseases of the nervous system (G40 G43.0) 1.4 0.9-2.0 1.1 0.6-1.8 2.2 0.4-6.3 4.2 1.5-9 0.002 NS  
  Migraines (G43.0) 0.7 0.3-1.2 0.4 0.1-0.8 0.7 0.1-4.0 4.2 1.5-9.0 <0.001 NS 7.7 for age < 24-9.3 for age < 44 [58]
Self-reported subs. misuse or dependence            
  Drug misuse 32.2 29.6-34.5 32.0 29.6-34.3 5.9 2.5-11.2 35.0 27.1-43.5 NS <0.001 Cannabis: men 12; women 4 15 < age < 34 [61]
  Pharmaceutical misuse 10.8 9.3-12.3 10.2 8.7-11.7 4.0 1.6-9.3 16.0 10.7-23.6 0.024 0.013  
  Alcohol misuse 18.9 17.0-20.8 19.0 16.9-20.9 24.2 17.3-32.5 17.8 11.9-25.2 NS NS  
  Cigarette misuse 46.4 43.9-48.8 46.9 44.4-49.4 38.9 30.7-47.7 40.0 31.8-48.6 NS   28.2 % in 2012 [59]; 32.4 for men; 24.2 for women;
Any drug, pharmaceutical, or alcohol misuse 40.8 38.4-43.1 40.7 38.2-43.2 29.4 21.9-37.8 42.1 33.8-50.7 NS 0.005  
  1. NS: not significant (at a 5 % level)