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Table 2 Multilevel logistic regression results for opposition to the continuation of FGM in Egypt

From: Women's position and attitudes towards female genital mutilation in Egypt: A secondary analysis of the Egypt demographic and health surveys, 1995-2014

b (95 % CI) (1) (2)
Constant −0.139 −0.754***
(−0.776–0.498) (−1.140–−0.368)
Region (ref: Urban Governorates) *** ***
 Lower-Egypt - Urban −0.324*** −0.331***
(−0.498–−0.150) (−0.511–−0.151)
 Lower-Egypt - Rural −0.919*** −0.937***
(−1.274–−0.564) (−1.309–−0.565)
 Upper-Egypt - Urban −0.537*** −0.548***
(−0.657–−0.417) (−0.662–−0.434)
 Upper-Egypt - Rural −1.018*** −1.037***
(−1.208–−0.828) (−1.251–−0.823)
 Frontier Governorates −0.116 −0.120
(−0.339–0.107) (−0.349–0.109)
Religion (ref: Muslim) *** ***
 Christian 1.623*** 1.665***
(1.396–1.850) (1.432–1.898)
 Other/missing −0.132 0.280
(−0.350–0.086) (−0.002–0.562)
Respondent circumcised −2.150*** −2.202***
(−2.446–−1.854) (−2.520–−1.884)
Number of children born −0.127*** −0.130***
(−0.141–−0.113) (−0.146–−0.114)
Age 0.023*** 0.024***
(0.013–0.033) (0.014–0.034)
Rural residence 0.076 0.078
(−0.200–0.352) (−0.208–0.364)
Labor market position (ref: Not working) *** ***
 Professional, technical or managerial occupations 0.157*** 0.161***
(0.096–0.218) (0.094–0.228)
 Clerical 0.243*** 0.253***
(0.127–0.359) (0.139–0.367)
 Sales −0.132 −0.136
(−0.344–0.080) (−0.354–0.082)
 Agriculture, self-employed −0.500*** −0.501***
(−0.706–−0.294) (−0.721–−0.281)
 Agriculture, employee −0.543** −0.540**
(−0.935–−0.151) (−0.924–−0.156)
 Services 0.256** 0.259**
(0.093–0.419) (0.098–0.420)
 Skilled manual labor −0.130 −0.133
(−0.271–0.011) (−0.276–0.010)
 Other/missing −0.229 −0.232
(−0.697–0.239) (−0.698–0.234)
Education level (ref; No formal education) *** ***
 Primary 0.094 0.094
(−0.010–0.198) (−0.012–0.200)
 Secondary 0.501*** 0.508***
(0.232–0.770) (0.243–0.773)
 Higher 1.138*** 1.158***
(0.777–1.499) (0.809–1.507)
Literacy (ref: Illiterate) *** ***
 Partially literate 0.321*** 0.327***
(0.258–0.384) (0.260–0.394)
 Fully literate 0.552*** 0.560***
(0.311–0.793) (0.299–0.821)
Basic amenities 0.036** 0.037**
(0.012–0.060) (0.010–0.064)
EDHS wave (ref: 1995)   ***
 2000   0.029
(−0.251–0.309)
 2003   0.190
(−0.086–0.466)
 2005   0.691***
(0.658–0.724)
 2008   0.952***
(0.915–0.989)
 2014   1.010***
(0.947–1.073)
var(Constante) 0.100* 0.000
(0.016–0.184) (0.000–0.000)
  1. Legend: b: partial logistic regression coefficient; 95 % CI: 95 % confidence interval for coefficient
  2. Significance: ***: p < .001, **: p < .010; *: p < 0.050