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Table 1 Characteristics and results of 26 reviewed studies

From: Meta-analysis of studies on chemical, physical and biological agents in the control of Aedes aegypti

Control Strategy Country N Period of intervention Main findings Author, year
Betta splendens Brazil 537 containers (1 fish/container) and 437 containers with Bti distributed in a neighborhood. 6 months The fish remained in 97.6 % of the containers for a period of 45-60 days, but in six months they were only in 13.5 % of these. The vector infestation indices in these containers was 19x lower compared to those with Bti, and their performance 85 % better. Oliveira-Lima et al. [13]
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bti)
Poecilia reticulata Cambodia 1,626 containers (2–3 fish/container) and 541 containers without fish, distributed in 14 villages. 12 months The fish remained in 56.9 % of the containers after 12 months. A BI of 71.9 was recorded, while in the containers without fish, the BI was 392.3. The local infestation index was reduced by 79 %. Seng et al. [15]
Betta splendens Brazil 2,071 tanks (1 fish/tank) distributed in three neighborhoods. 20 months There was a 320 x decrease in the infestation of the tanks. Pamplona et al. [14]
Mesocyclops ssp. Vietnam 5,111 containers with Mesocyclops and 3,426 with Micronecta distributed in three provinces. 120 months In containers with Mesocyclops there was a 50 % reduction in A. aegypti infestation and in those with Micronecta the protective effect was even greater. Nam et al. [17]
Micronecta quadristrigata Bredd
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bti) Brazil 140 houses distributed in five neighborhoods. 2 months Among three commercial brands evaluated, Bactivec® showed better results, because it reduced the HI by 95.4 %, while for G® and WDG® (Vectobac®) brands, the drop in this index varied from 17.5 to 22 %. No reduction was observed in the indices of the control area. Assumpção Filho and Silva, [19]
Triflumuron Australia 5 replica buckets (2 L) per treatment (0.48 and 0.96 ppm); 5 replicates with only water. ~6 months For up to 12 weeks the insecticide inhibited the emergence of adults, and for up to 20 weeks the emergence of pupae remained below 50 %. At the 0.96 ppm dose, the insecticide inhibited the development of pupae, by at least, 50 x the rate of the control during the study period. Jacups et al. [28]
Permethrin and pyriproxyfen (in ULV and fumigation) Argentina 5 areas with different treatments: 3 weeks ULV treatment with 10 % permethrin and 10 % permethrin plus 3 % pyriproxyfen, using the cold fogger truck mount ULV resulted in the greatest number of dead larvae. After the treatments, the lowest value of BI was observed in the area treated with the canister fumigant formula, and a long-lasting effect was observed with a formula of 10 % permethrin and 3 % pyriproxyfen. Three weeks elapsed before the pre-treatment value was restored. Dantur Juri et al. [26]
 1- 10 % Permethrin in ULV;
 2- 10 % permethrin and 3 % pyriproxyfen in a fumigant canister;
 3- the same formulas applied in area 2, in ULV;
 4- 10 % permethrin in ULV in portable aerosol pumps;
 5- without treatment;
Deltamethrin Thailand 86 curtains 12 months The impregnated curtains caused 98.2 % mortality, within 12 months after the intervention. Washing of curtains by hand, the use of detergent and sun exposure did not reduce the residual effect of the insecticide, but the washing machine increased the survival of the mosquito by 6x. The presence of dust in the curtain was a positive factor for the residual effect. Vanlerberghe et al. [21]
Highcis-Permethrin Colombia 200 houses were subjected to applications of cis-permethrin and 126 homes to ß-cypermethrin. 6 months There was a reduction of over 80 % in the density of mosquitoes after 1 day of treatment. After five weeks, the results showed no striking effects. Castro et al. [25]
Fenitrothion (in ULV) Thailand 1,500 homes in one neighborhood. 18 months Double application at an interval of 14 days The BI was reduced by 84.8 and 90.7 %, from 8 to 17 months after treatment. Pant et al. [27]
Physical or mechanical
Plastic covers for tanks Sri Lanka 46 tanks with intervention; 46 tanks without intervention. 12 months The average positive tanks decreased from 10.5/month to 1.17/month after intervention, whereas there was no change in the control. Kusumawathie et al. [31]
Manual cleaning with bleach and detergent Honduras 8 neighborhoods underwent intervention and 5 were controls; 1,784 houses were visited. 5 months The initial evaluation conducted revealed that there was no striking reduction in infestation indices. With an increase in the concentration of the ingredients and the number of pupae and 3rd and 4th instar larvae were significantly lower than in untreated neighborhoods. Fernández et al. [29]
Ovitraps United States 330 oviposition traps were installed in 165 homes (2/home); 145 homes remained as the control. 12 months The BI underwent a decrease of 36 %, while in the control area it increased by 500 %. Reduction in the HI in the intervention area was not significant, but in the control area these indices increased to 440 %. Cheng et al. [30]
Container covers (Olyset®) impregnated with permethrin Vietnam 313 houses underwent the intervention and 363 remained as controls; The evaluation of results was done in 3,869 containers in the trial area and 4,198 in the control área. 7 months After a month of study, the BI was 10.5 in the intervention area, while in the control area it was 41.6. Tsunoda et al. [10]
5 months after the intervention, the containers for the control showed an infestation 2.3 times higher than in containers with covers. Those treated with pyriproxyfen had a greater reduction in the number of pupae as compared to the controls. Despite that the treatments showed persistence for more than five months, no significant difference was observed in the rate of viral transmission in both areas.
Lethal ovitraps with Bti and buprofezin Pakistan 72 ovitraps were installed in 2 municipalities divided among 18 intervention houses, with 36 lethal ovitraps (LO) and 18 controls with 36 ovitraps without any treatment. 4 months 10,152 A. aegypti eggs were recovered with 5,351 and 4,801 from treatment and control blocks, respectively, indicating that different treatments did not affect oviposition. Ovitraps with infusion had more eggs (6,548) compared to those with only water (3.604).In ovitraps with Bti (10 and 100 ppm) there was a complete inhibition of pupae, but the buprofezin was more effective in interrupting the pupa-adult cycle. The union of the two larvicides at all concentrations, and in grass infusion was more effective in inhibiting the stages of larva-pupa and pupa-adult. Jahan and Sawar, [20]
Curtains and container covers treated with deltamethrin Guatemala 1,835 houses 18 months 6 weeks after intervention (rainy season) the number of pupae increased from 1,173 to 4,477, while in the control area, the increase was from 464 to 4,375 pupae. After the 2nd intervention, the number decreased to 1,032 in the clusters with intervention, and to 3,022 in the controls. The curtains caused 100 % mortality within 18 months, and for the drums they caused 85.3 % mortality in the same period. Rizzo et al. [22]
Temephos and elimination of breeding grounds 20 clusters; 10 received 3,079 curtains and 298 drum covers;10 remained as the control. 2 interventions (at 2, 17 months after)
Fish India 10-15 Poecilia fish were released into 514 tanks and the same number of Gambusia into 337 tanks; 50 people were surveyed. 4 months Poecilia was the most effective and more resistant fish. After 1 month, the larval density was 0.2 and 7.8 in two areas, with survival rates of 86 and 33.7 %. Only 16 % of Gambusia fish survived for the same period, and showed a larval density of 11.7. The use of Poecilia integrated with an educational campaign showed significant impact, but the same was not observed when considering the actions separately. Ghosh et al. [16]
Gambusia affinis
Educational campaign
Lethal ovitraps with deltamethrin Pakistan 50 houses received 18 pairs of lethal ovitraps (deltamethrin 2.5, 5 and 20 ppm); 2 and a half months The treated ovitraps had significantly fewer eggs (189, 87 and 61) compared to untreated controls (1019, 1305 and 949). Ovitraps containing the 20 ppm concentration were most effective for the control of the Aedes population. Jahan et al. [23]
20 houses received the same amount of ovitraps with distilled water.
Ovitraps with deltamethrin Colombia 10 houses with intervention in 4 neighborhoods 24 months with monthly substitution of Bti No significant differences were observed between treatments, but considering the entomological indices before and after intervention, the HI went from 15.1 to 8.5 %; The average pupae/house went from 1.15 to 0.07 and the adult rate from 56.3 to 34.8 %. Ocampo et al. [24]
Temephos Argentina 120,000 houses and 137,000 applications of larvicide every 4 months and applications in ULV, in emergency situations 60 months The BI decreased significantly in all focus cycles, compared to the pre-intervention period. The incidence of dengue fell from 10.4/10,000 inhabitants in the year 2000 to 0, between the period 2001 and 2006, increasing only to 4.5/10,000 inhabitants in 2007, with the introduction of a different serotype. Gürtler et al. [11]
Elimination of breeding
Lethal ovitraps (with Bifenthrin) (biodegradable) Australia 206 lethal ovitraps (4/premise) with insecticide (SLO) were installed. 500 biodegradable ovitraps (4/premise) (BLO); The monitoring was done through 15 sentinel ovitraps (BGSs) and 20 non-lethal ovitraps. 1 month In the rainy season the number of mosquitoes captured and killed was higher than the dry season, counting 993 females in the SLOs, and 119 in the sentinels, an average number significantly lower than in the control. In 53.2 % of the biodegradable ovitraps a total of 6,654 A. aegypti eggs were contained. Over the intervention period, collections of A. aegypti in the treatment areas were significantly less than in the control area is BGSs but not SLOs. The two lethal ovitraps were effective in vector control. Rapley et al. [32]
Bednets treated with permethrin (Olyset®) Haiti 1,017 houses belonging to 18 clusters; 9 sectors received mosquito nets and 9 were the controls. 12 months In the 1st month reduction in infestation rates in the intervention area was higher than in the control. After 5 months, the result was the opposite. However, control houses located within 50 m of the mosquito net houses had significantly lower HI and PPI at 1 month, an effect that extended to 100 m by 5 months. After 12 months, the number of dengue cases underwent a reduction of 15.3 %. Lenhart et al. [12]
Ovitraps with Bti Brazil 5 areas, from 80 to 100 ovitraps/area were instaled 464 sentinel ovitraps (S-OVT) with Bti (2 g) and 5,602 control ovitraps (C-OVT) with Bti (4 g). 12 months with monthly substitution of paddles, infusion and Bti 4 and 6.3 million eggs through the S-OVTs and C-OVTs were collected, respectively. The use of ovitraps can prevent mosquito population growth, depending on the number of eggs collected, and the increase of Bti also impairs hatching of the eggs. Regis et al. [33]
Resevoir cleaning Thailand 966 houses and 5,821 reservoirs inspected. --- Weekly cleaning was more effective than the monthly and annual cleaning (The proportion of infested containers was 17.2, 39.1 and 43.7 %, respectively); The fish reduced the % of larvae from 43.7 to 7.0 % cement tanks, being the most effective form of all that were evaluated; The covers were also effective, but its effect decreases with the frequency of use of reservoirs; Temephos was effective only in points in the urban area. Phuanukoonnon et al. [34]
Fish (Survey)
Malathion Mexico 187 houses were selected, with 47 submitted to the campaign, 46 to malathion, 49 to 2 interventions, and 45 to no interventions 6 months The overall average of the positive containers by house was reduced from 0.97 to 0.77. This reduction was more apparent in the houses that were a part of the educational campaign in relation to the ones that received malathion spraying. Espinoza-Gómez et al. [35]
Educacional Campaign
Mesocyclops and Community participation Vietnam 37 communes; 309,730 people 72 months (1998–2003) A. aegypti was eliminated from 32 communes. During the years 2000 and 2003, no dengue case was reported in any of the studied areas. Kay and Nam, [18]