Skip to main content

Table 3 Associations between parental chronic pain and self-esteem, social competence, and family cohesion in adolescents Linear regression

From: Associations between parental chronic pain and self-esteem, social competence, and family cohesion in adolescent girls and boys – family linkage data from the HUNT study

   Maternal chronic pain Paternal chronic pain Concurrent maternal and paternal chronic pain
  n a b 95 % CI p b 95 % CI p b 95 % CI p
Self-esteemb        
Girls        
 Unadjusted 1508 −0.12 [−0.19, −0.04] .003 −0.06 [−0.14, 0.02] .127 −0.17 [−0.29, −0.06] .003
 Adjustedc 1501 −0.10 [−0.17, −0.02] .014 −0.04 [−0.12, 0.04] .279 −0.14 [−0.26, −0.03] .016
Boys        
 Unadjusted 1504 0.02 [−0.05, 0.09] .605 −0.02 [−0.10, 0.06] .627 −0.04 [−0.14, 0.07] .512
 Adjusted 1495 0.03 [−0.04, 0.11] .378 −0.01 [−0.09, 0.07] .803 −0.01 [−0.11, 0.10] .930
Parental chronic pain × child sexc   .016   .564   .086
Social competenced        
Girls        
 Unadjusted 1492 −0.07 [−0.17, 0.04] .203 −0.03 [−0.14, 0.08] .619 −0.24 [−0.40, −0.08] .003
 Adjusted 1489 −0.07 [−0.17, 0.04] .213 −0.02 [−0.13, 0.09] .687 −0.24 [−0.40, −0.08] .004
Boys        
 Unadjusted 1484 0.12 [0.02, 0.22] .019 −0.01 [−0.13, 0.10] .858 0.13 [−0.01, 0.28] .076
 Adjusted 1475 0.12 [0.02, 0.22] .018 −0.01 [−0.13, 0.10] .849 0.14 [−0.01, 0.29] .070
Parental chronic pain × child sexc   .011   .888   .001
Family cohesiond        
Girls        
 Unadjusted 1504 −0.08 [−0.18, 0.02] .130 −0.11 [−0.22, −0.00] .042 −0.24 [−0.40, −0.09] .002
 Adjusted 1497 −0.06 [−0.17, 0.04] .232 −0.10 [−0.20, 0.01] .081 −0.22 [−0.37, −0.06] .007
Boys        
 Unadjusted 1485 0.02 [−0.08, 0.12] .683 0.05 [−0.06, 0.16] .340 −0.02 [−0.17, 0.12] .751
 Adjusted 1497 0.03 [−0.07, 0.13] .515 0.06 [−0.05, 0.17] .304 0.01 [−0.15, 0.15] .938
Parental chronic pain × child sexc   .189   .149   .041
  1. aAll n are reported for complete cases, and the results are based on MI bRosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, range from 1 to 4, where a high score indicates high self-esteem cAdjusted for child age and maternal and paternal education dResilience Scale for Adolescents (READ), range from 1 to 5, where a high score indicates high social competence and family cohesion