Skip to main content

Table 2 Factors associated with harmful practice

From: Harmful practices in the management of childhood diarrhea in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Level Factor Positive association (harmful practice more likely) Negative association (harmful practice less likely) No association No test of significance
Association with fluid curtailment
 Episode Dehydrated (vs not dehydrated)     [57]
Severe disease [10]    [57]
Child vomited (vs did not vomit) [9]    
Child was anorexic   [11]   
Longer duration of episode   [11]   
 Child Older child age   [15] [12] [13, 14]
 Caregiver Older maternal age   [12] [16]  
Higher maternal education   [16] [12]  
Older maternal age at marriage    [12]  
Caregiver employed   [12]   
 Household Live in urban area (vs rural)    [16] [95]
Association with breastfeeding restriction
 Episode Dehydrated (vs not dehydrated)     [57]
Severe disease     [57]
 Child Older child age    [12]  
 Caregiver Older maternal age   [12]   
Higher maternal education   [12]   
Older maternal age at marriage    [12]  
Caregiver employed    [12]  
 Household Live in urban area (vs rural)    [33] [95]
Association with Food Restriction
 Episode Dehydrated (vs not dehydrated) [40]    [57]
Severe disease [40]    [57]
Child had fever [11]    
Child was anorexic [11]    
ORS use [41]    
Sought care outside home [41]    
 Child Older child age [42]   [12] [13, 14]
 Caregiver Older maternal age    [12, 16] [90]
Higher maternal education   [12, 16]   [90]
Older maternal age at marriage    [12]  
Caregiver employed    [12]  
 Household Greater household income     [90]
Live in urban area (vs rural)    [16] [90, 95]
Association with inappropriate drug use
 Episode Dehydrated (vs not dehydrated) [60]   [40] [57]
Severe disease    [10, 40] [57]
Longer disease duration [63]    
Classification of diarrhea     [81]
ORS use [60, 63]    [68]
Sought care outside home [11, 41]    
 Child Older child age     [13, 14]
 Caregiver Higher maternal education   [64] [60]  
 Household Greater household income    [60, 87]  
Live in urban area (vs rural)     [93]