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Table 4 Baseline and post-intervention, adjusted difference and effect sizes for potential mediators outcomes

From: Reducing electronic media use in 2–3 year-old children: feasibility and efficacy of the Family@play pilot randomised controlled trial

Outcome variable Baseline (M, 95 % CI) Post-intervention (M, 95 % CI) Adjusted group mean difference* (M, 95 % CI) Effect Size (Cohen’s d) Bias corrected (Hedges’ g)
Control Intervention Control Intervention    
Amount of time parent believes is acceptable for EM use (mins/day) 81.0 (48.9, 113.1) 84.0 (49.2, 118.8) 66.0 (43.8, 88.2) 70.9 (48.3, 93.5) 4.9 (−21.0, 30.7) 0.17 0.09
Weekly frequency young child watches TV/DVD/videos to settle for bed (days/week) 1.9 (0.0, 3.7) 3.0 (0.7, 5.2) 2.3 (17.6, 4.3) 2.6 (0.5, 4.7) −0.6 (−2.0, 0.8) 0.39 0.22
Parent feels they can support active opportunities (possible range 0–4)# 3.2 (2.7, 3.7) 3.5 (3.3, 3.7) 3.4 (3.0, 3.8) 3.6 (3.3, 3.8) −0.1 (−0.3, 0.1) 0.36 0.20
Parent believes it is important to participate in activities together (possible range 0–4)# 1.3 (1.0, 1.7) 1.7 (1.3, 2.1) 1.4 (1.1, 1.7) 1.6 (1.1, 2.1) 0.0 (−0.5, 0.5) 0.05 0.03
Parental self-efficacy to limit child’s EM use (possible range 0–4)# 2.4 (2.0, 2.8) 2.5 (2.0, 3.1) 2.6 (2.2, 3.0) 2.8 (2.4, 3.3) 0.1 (−0.2, 0.5) 0.31 0.17
Parental beliefs about influence of EM use on health, developmental and behavioural outcomes (possible range 0–4)^ 2.1 (1.7, 2.4) 2.0 (1.7, 2.4) 2.2 (1.9, 2.5) 2.4 (2.1, 2.8) 0.3 (−0.2, 0.7) 0.55 0.31
Child’s opportunity to participate in EM use (possible range 0–4)~ 1.5 (1.3, 1.7) 1.7 (1.5, 2.0) 1.5 (1.3, 1.6) 1.6 (1.4, 1.8) 0.0 (−0.2, 0.2) 0.12 0.07
activPAL™
Percent of time sitting 54.4 (47.7, 61.2) 54.2 (48.9, 49.5) 54.8 (45.5, 64.0) 54.1 (49.7, 58.5) 1.0 (−7.7, 9.7) 0.11 0.06
Percent of time standing 30.3 (25.0, 35.5) 30.7 (27.0, 34.3) 30.8 (21.5, 40.1) 30.3 (27.8, 32.7) 1.6 (−6.9, 10.1) 0.18 0.10
Percent of time stepping 15.3 (13.2, 17.4) 15.2 (11.8, 18.7) 14.5 (11.0, 17.9) 15.7 (11.8, 19.6) 1.3 (−2.6, 5.3) 0.31 0.18
  1. #higher values indicate more favourable outcomes; ^ higher values indicate parental knowledge consistent with evidence; ~ lower values represent more restricted opportunities