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Table 3 Time in EM use at baseline and post-intervention, adjusted difference and effect sizes for electronic media use outcomes

From: Reducing electronic media use in 2–3 year-old children: feasibility and efficacy of the Family@play pilot randomised controlled trial

Outcome measure (mins/day) Baseline (M, 95 % CI) Post-intervention (M, 95 % CI) Adjusted differencea (M, 95 % CI) Effect Size (Cohen’s d)b Bias corrected (Hedges g)
Control Intervention Control Intervention
Total EM use 97.1 (61.5, 132.8) 117.8 (74.0, 161.6) 100.1 (64.1, 136.1) 78.8 (44.7, 112.8) −31.2 (−71.0, 8.6) 0.70 0.39
TV/DVD/Video/computer/ sed e-games combined 90.0 (56.9, 123.1) 104.4 (60.3, 148.4) 87.4 (50.5, 124.3) 68.1 (38.6, 97.7) −24.5 (−62.9, 13.8) 0.57 0.32
Television viewing 78.4 (45.5, 111.3) 60.0 (26.0, 94.0) 74.6 (43.6, 106.7) 49.7 (21.3, 78.1) −16.1 (−50.5, 18.4) 0.42 0.23
DVD/Video viewing 7.1 (−4.1, 18.4) 44.4 (13.5, 75.3) 7.5 (−4.9, 19.9) 18.4 (−2.7, 39.5) −14.2 (−34.1, 5.6) 0.64 0.36
Educational computer use 3.8 (−1.3, 8.8) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 5.3 (−2.7, 13.2) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) −0.5 (−4.4, 3.5) 0.10 0.06
Computer for entertainment 0.8 (−0.9, 2.4) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) - -
Sedentary e-games (e.g. PlayStation) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) - -
Active e-games (e.g. Wii) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 3.8 (−4.7, 12.2) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) −3.8 (−10.9, 3.4) 0.47 0.27
Digital tablet 4.5 (−1.7, 10.7) 8.1 (−5.6, 21.8) 4.1 (−1.3, 9.6) 6.3 (−7.5, 20.0) −1.0 (−8.4, 6.3) 0.13 0.07
Handheld e-game 2.6 (−2.4, 7.7) 4.1 (−1.6, 9.8) 4.9 (−4.4, 14.2) 3.1 (−2.4, 8.7) −3.7 (−6.8, −0.7) 1.09 0.62
Electronic toy 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 1.3 (−0.86, 3.4) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 1.3 (−8.6, 3.4) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) - -
  1. aAdjusted for group and baseline value of outcome variable
  2. bEffect sizes calculated using centred means of baseline carried forward values where data were missing