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Table 1 Baseline, anthropometric, biochemical and tomographic characteristics by categories of self-perceived psychological stress

From: Self-perceived stress is associated with adiposity and atherosclerosis. The GEA Study

Risk factors Never/periods Chronic ≥ 5y P value
n = 1117 n = 126
Female n (%) 555 (49.7) 79 (62.7) 0.006
Current smokers n (%) 242 (21.7) 30 (23.8) 0.581
Alcohol intake n (%) 119 (10.7) 12 (9.5) 0.805
Sedentary lifestyle n (%) 498 (44.6) 71 (56.3) 0.012
Hypertension n (%) 222 (19.9) 21 (16.7) 0.389
Diabetes n (%) 172 (15.4) 16 (12.7) 0.423
Dyslipidemia n (%) 183 (16.4) 24 (19) 0.422
Metabolic syndrome n (%) 480 (43) 61 (48.4) 0.243
Physical Inactivity n (%) 500 (44.8) 72 (57.1) 0.008
Overweight n (%) 538 (48.2) 48 (38.1) 0.024
Obesity n (%) 354 (31.7) 61 (48.4) 0.001
Increased IMT n (%) 170 (22) 42 (37.5) <0.001
Anthropometric and Biochemical
Age (years) 54.2 (53.7-54.8) 53.4 (52.0-54.9) 0.417
Waist circumference (cm) 95.5 (87.7-102.5) 96 (89–106.9) 0.214
BMI (kg/m2) 28 (25.5-31.1) 29.8 (26.4-32.3) 0.002
Systolic BP (mmHg) 114 (105 – 126) 114 (102 – 123) 0.353
TC (mg/dl) 191.8 (166–215) 190 (166.6-208.9) 0.725
LDL-C (mg/dl) 117(95.6 – 137.7) 114 (97 – 137) 0.571
HDL-C (mg/dl) 44 (36.3-54.3) 42.6 (35.1 -51) 0.309
TG (mg/dl) 149 (113–205) 152 (109–202) 0.712
Glucose (mg/dl) 91 (85 – 100) 91 (83 – 102) 0.684
HOMA-IR 4.1 (2.7-6) 4.2 (2.9-6) 0.628
Insulin (μU/ml) 17.4 (12.7-24.2) 18.2 (14–23.1) 0.510
C-reactive protein (mg/dl) 1.62 (0.82-3.36) 1.42 (0.87-3.37) 0.877
ALT (IU/L) 24 (18–34) 26 (19–35) 0.106
AST (IU/L) 25 (21–31) 25 (22–32) 0.120
Tomographic and ultrasonography
TAF (cm2) 443 (359–547) 480 (377–583) 0.035
SAF (cm2) 285 (218–366) 319 (242–409) 0.008
VAF (cm2) 153 (115–200) 156 (106–192) 0.706
IMTave (mm) 0.63 (0.55-0.73) 0.66 (0.60-0.83) <0.001
  1. Differences between groups with the Chi square test for proportions and U-Mann Whitney test for median (range). IMT = Intima media thickness. BMI = Body mass index, BP = Blood pressure, TC = Total cholesterol, LDL = Low density lipoprotein, HDL = High-density lipoprotein, TG = Triglycerides, HOMA-IR = Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, ALT = Alanine transaminase, AST = Aspartate transaminase, TAF = Total abdominal fat, SAF = Subcutaneous abdominal fat, VAF = Visceral abdominal fat and IMTave = Intima media thickness average