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Table 4 Lead poisoning rate according to published year, different economic zones, gender and different age ranges

From: The trend of lead poisoning rate in Chinese population aged 0–18 years old: a meta-analysis

Subgroup Pooled rate (95 % CI) (%) Sample size Heterogeneity test P I2
Published year      
1990–2000 28.1 % (21.6 %, 34.6 %) 13,804 845.98 <0.05 98.2 %
2001–2005 10.5 % (6.4 %, 14.5 %) 111,663 9525 <0.05 99.7 %
2006–2012 5.3 % (3.7 %, 7 %) 73,629 1560.91 <0.05 98.7 %
Economical zones      
Eastern zone 4.3 % (2 %, 6.6 %) 99,896 14819.93 <0.05 99.5 %
Central zone 8.5 % (4.8 %, 12.1 %) 50,543 4572.20 <0.05 99.3 %
Western zone 5.8 % (3.2 %, 8.5 %) 48,393 3956.12 <0.05 99.1 %
Districs      
Urban area 9.6 % (7.1 %, 12.1 %) 167,058 6980.4 <0.05 99.5 %
Suburban area 23.6 % (17 %, 30.3 %) 2555 114.22 <0.05 93.9 %
Rural area 23.8 % (6.7 %, 40.9 %) 1416 184.99 <0.05 98.4 %
Industrial area 57.5 % (28 %, 86.9 %) 937 403.16 <0.05 99.3 %
Mining area 70 %a (62.7 %, 77.3 %) 150 0 <0.05  
Sex      
Male 10 % (7 %, 13 %) 100,036 3676.19 <0.05 99.4 %
Female 7.7 % (5 %, 10.4 %) 82,754 2947.68 <0.05 99.2 %
Age range      
Newborn (born-1 month) 3.3 % (0, 14.8 %) 4978 1970.40 <0.05 99.5 %
Infant(1 month–1 year old) 4.7 % (2.8 %, 6.7 %) 11,551 125.12 <0.05 90.4 %
Toddler (1–3 years old) 7.4 % (4.8 %, 10 %) 28,324 1532.99 <0.05 97.7 %
Pre-school age (3–6 year old) 9.5 % (7.8 %, 11.2 %) 99,735 3623.39 <0.05 98.2 %
school age (6–12 years old) 6.7 % (4.7 %, 8.6 %) 20,873 825.25 <0.05 95.6 %
Adolescence (>12 years old) 7 % (0, 13 %) 435 17.99 <0.05 88.9 %
  1. aThe data is a constant for only one literature included