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Table 2 Socio-demographic characteristics of the women by country

From: Overweight status of the primary caregivers of orphan and vulnerable children in 3 Southern African countries: a cross sectional study

  Namibia (N=6638) Swaziland (N=2875) Zambia (N=4497)
  OVC primary caregiver Non-OVC primary caregiver Non-primary caregiver living with OVC Non-primary caregiver not living with OVC Total p-value* OVC primary caregiver Non-OVC primary caregiver Non-primary caregiver living with OVC Non-primary caregiver not living with OVC Total p-value* OVC primary caregiver Non-OVC primary caregiver Non-primary caregiver living with OVC Non-primary caregiver not living with OVC Total p-value*
Nutritional Statusa, n (%)
-Underweight 234 313 101 166 814 <0.001 13 23 4 12 52 <0.001 95 228 26 32 381 <0.001
  (13.0 %) (10.8 %) (14.9 %) (13.0 %) (12.3 %)   (1.7 %) (1.4 %) (3.3 %) (3.6 %) (1.8 %)   (7.4 %) (8.9 %) (10.6 %) (8.0 %) (8.5 %)  
-Normal weight 964 1,440 425 725 3,554   291 569 65 187 1,112   850 1813 175 284 3122  
  (53.6 %) (49.9 %) (62.8 %) (56.8 %) (53.5 %)   (37.0 %) (34.9 %) (53.3 %) (55.5 %) (38.7 %)   (65.8 %) (70.8 %) (71.1 %) (71.0 %) (69.4 %)  
-Overweight 600 1,133 151 386 2,270   482 1,038 53 138 1,711   347 518 45 84 994  
  (33.4 %) (39.3 %) (22.3 %) (30.2 %) (34.2 %)   (61.3 %) (63.7 %) (43.4 %) (40.9 %) (59.5 %)   (26.9 %) (20.2 %) (18.3 %) (21.0 %) (22.1 %)  
Women’s Age in years, Mean (Standard Deviation)
  33.69 33.53 28.63 28.86   <0.001 33.20 32.98 25.38 27.15   <0.001 32.56 32.17 27.12 28.69   <0.001
  (8.1) (7.9) (8.4) (8.4)   0.0010 (8.6) (8.3) (6.9) (8.2)    (8.0) (8.2) (7.9) (8.8)   
Women’s Education, n(%)
-No Education 168 334 46 72 620 <0.001 88 161 7 40 296 <0.001 126 355 20 42 543 <0.001
  (9.3 %) (11.6 %) (6.8 %) (5.6 %) (9.3 %)   (11.2 %) (9.9 %) (5.7 %) (11.9 %) (10.3 %)   (9.8 %) (13.9 %) (8.1 %) (10.5 %) (12.1 %)  
-Primary Education 609 866 142 190 1,807   278 502 24 82 886   689 1,509 74 128 2,400  
  (33.9 %) (30.0 %) (21.0 %) (14.9 %) (27.2 %)   (35.4 %) (30.8 %) (19.7 %) (24.3 %) (30.8 %)   (53.3 %) (59.0 %) (30.1 %) (32.0 %) (53.4 %)  
-Secondary Education 921 1,499 446 876 3,742   374 765 74 160 1,373   373 587 110 173 1,243  
  (51.2 %) (51.9 %) (65.9 %) (68.6 %) (56.4 %)   (47.6 %) (46.9 %) (60.7 %) (47.5 %) (47.8 %)   (28.9 %) (22.9 %) (44.7 %) (43.2 %) (27.6 %)  
-Higher Education 100 187 43 139 469   46 202 17 55 320   104 108 42 57 311  
  (5.6 %) (6.5 %) (6.4 %) (10.9 %) (7.1 %)   (5.9 %) (12.4 %) (13.9 %) (16.3 %) (11.1 %)   (8.0 %) (4.2 %) (17.1 %) (14.2 %) (6.9 %)  
Marital Status, n(%)
-Never Married 738 995 508 871 3,112 <0.001 224 459 95 230 1,008 <0.001 84 171 147 190 592 <0.001
  (41.1 %) (34.5 %) (75.0 %) (68.3 %) (46.9 %)   (28.5 %) (28.2 %) (77.9 %) (68.2 %) (35.1 %)   (6.5 %) (6.7 %) (59.8 %) (47.5 %) (13.2 %)  
-Married 928 1741 146 373 3,188   448 1,045 23 98 1,614   993 2,023 67 158 3,241  
  (51.7 %) (60.3 %) (21.6 %) (29.2 %) (48.0 %)   (57.0 %) (64.1 %) (18.9 %) (29.1 %) (56.1 %)   (76.9 %) (79.1 %) (27.2 %) (39.5 %) (72.1 %)  
-Widowed 102 108 16 23 249   107 117 3 9 236   110 161 7 15 293  
  (5.7 %) (3.7 %) (2.4 %) (1.8 %) (3.8 %)   (13.6 %) (7.2 %) (2.5 %) (2.7 %) (8.2 %)   (8.5 %) (6.3 %) (2.8 %) (3.8 %) (6.5 %)  
-Divorced 28 42 7 9 86   7 9 1 0 17   105 204 25 37 371  
  (1.6 %) (1.5 %) (1.0 %) (0.7 %) (1.3 %)   (0.9 %) (0.6 %) (0.8 %) (0.0 %) (0.6 %)   (8.1 %) (8.0 %) (10.2 %) (9.2 %) (8.2 %)  
Work Statusb, n(%)
-Not Working 764 1,074 266 476 2,580 <0.001 366 630 73 156 1,225 <0.001 412 889 105 175 1,581 <0.001
  (42.8 %) (37.4 %) (39.7 %) (37.7 %) (39.2 %)   (46.6 %) (38.7 %) (60.3 %) (46.4 %) (42.7 %)   (32.0 %) (34.8 %) (43.2 %) (43.8 %) (35.2 %)  
-Working in Agriculture 264 298 63 59 684   45 100 6 19 170   326 884 28 76 1,314  
  (14.8 %) (10.4 %) (9.4 %) (4.7 %) (10.4 %)   (5.7 %) (6.1 %) (5.0 %) (5.7 %) (5.9 %)   (25.3 %) (34.6 %) (11.5 %) (19.0 %) (29.3 %)  
-Working other than Agriculture 757 1,497 341 728 3,323   374 900 42 161 1,477   551 783 110 149 1,593  
  (42.4 %) (52.2 %) (50.9 %) (57.6 %) (50.4 %)   (47.6 %) (55.2 %) (34.7 %) (47.9 %) (51.4 %)   (42.7 %) (30.6 %) (45.3 %) (37.2 %) (35.5 %)  
Region of Residence, n(%)
-Urban 544 1,494 258 818 3,114 <0.001 130 696 31 196 1,053 <0.001 699 906 181 232 2,018 <0.001
  (30.3 %) (51.8 %) (38.1 %) (64.1 %) (46.9 %)   (16.5 %) (42.7 %) (25.4 %) (58.2 %) (36.6 %)   (54.1 %) (35.4 %) (73.6 %) (58.0 %) (44.9 %)  
-Rural 1,254 1,392 419 459 3,524   656 934 91 141 1,822   593 1,653 65 168 2,479  
  (69.7 %) (48.2 %) (61.9 %) (35.9 %) (53.1 %)   (83.5 %) (57.3 %) (74.6 %) (41.8 %) (63.4 %)   (45.9 %) (64.6 %) (26.4 %) (42.0 %) (55.1 %)  
Religion, n(%)                   
-Protestant 1,364 2,160 512 1,020 5,056 0.009 108 310 30 59 507 0.009 1,042 2,001 198 309 3,550 0.611
  (76.1 %) (75.0 %) (75.9 %) (79.9 %) (76.3 %)   (13.8 %) (19.0 %) (24.6 %) (17.5 %) (17.6 %)   (80.8 %) (78.3 %) (80.5 %) (77.4 %) (79.0 %)  
-Roman Catholic 410 665 152 236 1,463   2 9 0 3 14   225 510 44 83 862  
  (22.9 %) (23.1 %) (22.5 %) (18.5 %) (22.1 %)   (0.3 %) (0.6 %) (0.0 %) (0.9 %) (0.5 %)   (17.4 %) (20.0 %) (17.9 %) (20.8 %) (19.2 %)  
-Other/No Religion 19 55 11 21 106   675 1,311 92 275 2,353   23 45 4 7 79  
  (1.1 %) (1.9 %) (1.6 %) (1.6 %) (1.6 %)   (86.0 %) (80.4 %) (75.4 %) (81.6 %) (81.9 %)   (1.8 %) (1.8 %) (1.6 %) (1.8 %) (1.8 %)  
Children ≤ 5 years in Household, n(%)
-No 442 831 399 867 2539 <0.001 178 607 74 227 1,086 <0.001 292 490 159 275 1,216 <0.001
  (24.6 %) (28.8 %) (58.9 %) (67.9 %) (38.2 %)   (22.6 %) (37.2 %) (60.7 %) (67.4 %) (37.8 %)   (22.6 %) (19.1 %) (64.6 %) (68.8 %) (27.0 %)  
-Yes 1356 2055 278 410 4099   608 1023 48 110 1789   1,000 2,069 87 125 3,281  
  (75.4 %) (71.2 %) (41.1 %) (32.1 %) (61.8 %)   (77.4 %) (62.8 %) (39.3 %) (32.6 %) (62.2 %)   (77.4 %) (80.9 %) (35.4 %) (31.2 %) (73.0 %)  
Household Wealth, n(%)
-Poorest 369 478 120 184 1,151 <0.001 82 115 10 25 232 <0.001 321 713 43 74 1,151 <0.001
  (20.5 %) (16.6 %) (17.7 %) (14.4 %) (17.3 %)   (10.4 %) (7.1 %) (8.2 %) (7.4 %) (8.1 %)   (24.8 %) (27.9 %) (17.5 %) (18.5 %) (25.6 %)  
-Poorer 522 514 197 172 1,405   138 209 14 37 398   289 853 36 85 1,263  
  (29.0 %) (17.8 %) (29.1 %) (13.5 %) (21.2 %)   (17.6 %) (12.8 %) (11.5 %) (11.0 %) (13.8 %)   (22.4 %) (33.3 %) (14.6 %) (21.2 %) (28.1 %)  
-Medium 253 393 78 170 894   241 419 27 66 753   201 357 34 53 645  
  (14.1 %) (13.6 %) (11.5 %) (13.3 %) (13.5 %)   (30.7 %) (25.7 %) (22.1 %) (19.6 %) (26.2 %)   (15.6 %) (14.0 %) (13.8 %) (13.2 %) (14.3 %)  
-Wealthier 200 361 81 151 793   140 256 21 50 467   153 256 23 50 482  
  (11.1 %) (12.5 %) (12.0 %) (11.8 %) (11.9 %)   (17.8 %) (15.7 %) (17.2 %) (14.8 %) (16.2 %)   (11.8 %) (10.0 %) (9.3 %) (12.5 %) (10.7 %)  
-Wealthiest 454 1,140 201 600 2,395   185 631 50 159 1,025   328 380 110 138 956  
  (25.3 %) (39.5 %) (29.7 %) (47.0 %) (36.1 %)   (23.5 %) (38.7 %) (41.0 %) (47.2 %) (35.7 %)   (25.4 %) (14.8 %) (44.7 %) (34.5 %) (21.3 %)  
  1. aUnderweight (BMI < 18.5), normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25.0), and overweight (BMI ≥ 25.0)
  2. bNon-agricultural jobs include the following: professional, technical, management, clerical, sales, household and domestic services, skilled or unskilled manual jobs. Agricultural jobs include self-employed as well as employed people
  3. *p-values were calculated using Chi-square and ANOVA tests
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