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Table 3 Association between HLQ scores and demographic characteristics

From: Distribution of health literacy strengths and weaknesses across socio-demographic groups: a cross-sectional survey using the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ)

  Feel understood & supported by health care professionals Have sufficient information to manage health Actively managing my health Social support for health Appraisal of health information Ability to actively engage with health care professionals Navigating the Healthcare System Ability to find good health information Understand health information
  Mean score (SD)
Sex Male 3.26 (0.54) 2.98 (0.55) 2.99 (0.50) 3.10 (0.55) 2.74 (0.56) 4.04 (0.59) 3.85 (0.63) 3.67 (0.67) 3.81 (0.69)
n = 296 n = 296 n = 295 n = 296 n = 294 n = 293 n = 294 n = 292 n = 294
Female 3.19 (0.53) 2.97 (0.54) 3.05 (0.49) 2.99 (0.55) 2.81 (0 53) 3.93 (0.74) 3.82 (0.70) 3.65 (0.79) 3.89 (0.77)
n = 505 n = 505 n = 504 n = 504 n = 502 n = 498 n = 500 n = 499 n = 499
Effect size for sex (95 % CI) 0.12 (−0.02, 0.27) 0.02 (−0.12, 0.16) −0.11 (−0.26, 0.03) 0.19 (0.05, 0.33) −0.14 (−0.28, 0.01) 0.16 (0.02, 0.30) 0.05 (−0.09, 0.19) 0.02 (−0.12, 0.16) −0.11 (−0.25, 0.03)
Age group <65 yr 3.23 (0.57) 2.93 (0.59) 2.95 (0.50) 2.94 (0.58) 2.80 (0.55) 3.92 (0.73) 3.74 (0.71) 3.65 (0.73) 3.86 (0.74)
n = 181 n = 181 n = 181 n = 181 n = 181 n = 179 n = 179 n = 179 n = 179
≥65 yr 3.21 (0.53) 2.99 (0.53) 3.05 (0.50) 3.06 (0.55) 2.77 (0.54) 4.00 (0.67) 3.86 (0.66) 3.66 (0.75) 3.87 (0.73)
n = 605 n = 604 n = 604 n = 604 n = 600 n = 596 n = 599 n = 596 n = 598
Effect size age (95 % CI) −0.02 (−0.19, 0.15) 0.12 (−0.04, 0.29) 0.20 (0.03, 0.37) 0.22 (0.06, 0.39) −0.05 (−0.22, 0.11) 0.12 (−0.05, 0.28) 0.18 (0.01, 0.34) 0.01 (−0.15, 0.18) 0.02 (−0.14, 0.19)
Completed secondary education No 3.19 (0.53) 2.97 (0.54) 2.99 (0.51) 3.02 (0.54) 2.71 (0.53) 3.95 (0.68) 3.81 (0.67) 3.56 (0.79) 3.75 (0.78)
n = 375 n = 375 n = 374 n = 375 n = 374 n = 371 n = 373 n = 372 n = 373
Yes 3.23 (0.55) 2.99 (0.55) 3.05 (0.49) 3.04 (0.57) 2.84 (0.54) 3.99 (0.70) 3.84 (0.68) 3.74 (0.69) 3.95 (0.69)
n = 436 n = 435 n = 435 n = 435 n = 432 n = 427 n = 428 n = 426 n = 427
Effect size education (95 % CI) 0.09 (−0.05, 0.22) 0.04 (−0.10, 0.18) 0.13 (−0.01, 0.26) 0.05 (−0.09, 0.19) 0.25 (0.11, 0.39) 0.06 (−0.08, 0.20) 0.04 (−0.10, 0.18) 0.25 (0.11, 0.39) 0.28 (0.14, 0.41)
Health insurance No 3.21 (0.51) 2.98 (0.53) 2.98 (0.49) 3.00 (0.55) 2.78 (0.54) 3.95 (0.71) 3.80 (0.71) 3.62 (0.79) 3.79 (0.79)
n = 495 n = 495 n = 493 n = 494 n = 491 n = 487 n = 487 n = 485 n = 487
Yes 3.23 (0.58) 2.98 (0.57) 3.10 (0.51) 3.08 (0.56) 2.79 (0.53) 4.00 (0.66) 3.88 (0.61) 3.72 (0.66) 3.99 (0.64)
n = 297 n = 297 n = 297 n = 297 n = 296 n = 293 n = 296 n = 295 n = 295
Effect size insurance (95 %, CI) −0.03 (−0.18, 0.11) −0.01 (−0.15, 0.14) −0.23 (−0.37, −0.09) −0.16 (−0.30, −0.01) −0.02 (−0.16, 0.13) −0.06 (−0.21, 0.08) −0.13 (−0.27, 0.02) −0.13 (−0.27, 0.01) −0.27 (−0.12, −0.41)
Born in Australia No 3.15 (0.53) 2.94 (0.55) 3.03 (0.47) 2.98 (0.56) 2.78 (0.58) 3.83 (0.77) 3.71 (0.75) 3.53 (0.84) 3.69 (0.84)
n = 262 n = 262 n = 260 n = 261 n = 260 n = 259 n = 260 n = 259 n = 260
Yes 3.25 (0.54) 2.99 (0.54) 3.02 (0.51) 3.06 (0.55) 2.78 (0.52) 4.04 (0.64) 3.88 (0.63) 3.71 (0.69) 3.94 (0.68)
n = 541 n = 540 n = 541 n = 541 n = 538 n = 533 n = 535 n = 533 n = 534
Effect size COB (95 %, CI) −0.18 (−0.33, −0.03) −0.10 (−0.25, 0.05) 0.02 (−0.13, 0.17) −0.13 (−0.28, 0.01) −0.01 (−0.16, 0.14) −0.32 (−0.46, −0.17) −0.26 (−0.41, −0.11) −0.24 (−0.39, −0.09) −0.33 (−0.48, −0.18)
English spoken at home No 3.04 (0.49) 2.81 (0.62) 2.99 (0.49) 2.87 (0.55) 2.79 (0.60) 3.37 (0.92) 3.39 (0.88) 3.18 (0.93) 3.16 (0.93)
n = 73 n = 73 n = 73 n = 73 n = 73 n = 72 n = 73 n = 73 n = 73
Yes 3.24 (0.53) 3.00 (0.53) 3.03 (0.49) 3.06 (0.55) 2.79 (0.53) 4.03 (0.63) 3.87 (0.63) 3.70 (0.71) 3.93 (0.69)
n = 721 n = 720 n = 720 n = 720 n = 717 n = 715 n = 718 n = 715 n = 717
Effect size English (95 %, CI) −0.37 (−0.61, −0.12) −0.35 (−0.59, −0.11) −0.10 (−0.34, 0.14) −0.33 (−0.57, −0.09) 0.01 (−0.23, 0.25) −1.00 (−1.24, −0.75) −0.72 (−0.97, −0.48) −0.71 (−0.96, −0.47) −1.09 (−1.33, −0.84)
Number of chronic conditions <4 3.21 (0.53) 3.00 (0.54) 3.03 (0.49) 3.06 (0.54) 2.78 (0.55) 4.00 (0.69) 3.86 (0.67) 3.68 (0.73) 3.87 (0.76)
n = 536 n = 535 n = 535 n = 535 n = 532 n = 528 n = 530 n = 527 n = 530
≥4 3.22 (0.56) 2.91 (0.55) 3.00 (0.49) 2.95 (0.58) 2.78 (0.51) 3.90 (0.68) 3.73 (0.65) 3.58 (0.76) 3.82 (0.70)
n = 252 n = 252 n = 252 n = 252 n = 251 n = 249 n = 250 n = 250 n = 249
Effect size condition (95 % CI) −0.03 (−0.18, 0.12) 0.18 (0.03, 0.33) 0.06 (−0.09, 0.21) 0.21 (0.06, 0.36) −0.00 (−0.15, 0.15) 0.14 (−0.01, 0.29) 0.20 (0.05, 0.35) 0.13 (−0.02, 0.28) 0.08 (−0.07, 0.23)
Lives alone No 3.21 (0.54) 2.96 (0.53) 3.00 (0.48) 3.09 (0.52) 2.79 (0.53) 3.97 (0.69) 3.82 (0.68) 3.66 (0.72) 3.86 (0.73)
n = 440 n = 440 n = 439 n = 439 n = 437 n = 437 n = 439 n = 438 n = 438
Yes 3.22 (0.54) 3.00 (0.55) 3.06 (0.50) 2.96 (0.59) 2.77 (0.54) 3.98 (0.68) 3.83 (0.67) 3.65 (0.78) 3.86 (0.74)
n = 336 n = 335 n = 335 n = 336 n = 334 n = 333 n = 335 n = 332 n = 335
Effect size lives alone (95 % CI) −0.02 (−0.16, 0.13) −0.07 (−0.21, 0.07) −0.13 (−0.27, 0.01) 0.25 (0.11, 0.39) 0.05 (−0.09, 0.19) −0.03 (−0.17, 0.12) −0.02 (−0.16, 0.12) 0.02 (−0.13, 0.16) −0.00 (−0.15, 0.14)
Lives in rural area No 3.21 (0.51) 2.97 (0.53) 3.02 (0.50) 3.04 (0.55) 2.78 (0.53) 3.96 (0.70) 3.83 (0.67) 3.63 (0.76) 3.84 (0.76)
n = 642 n = 641 n = 640 n = 641 n = 637 n = 637 n = 634 n = 632 n = 633
Yes 3.22 (0.62) 3.01 (0.58) 3.04 (0.49) 3.01 (0.56) 2.81 (0.55) 4.00 (0.65) 3.81 (0.67) 3.74 (0.69) 3.91 (0.69)
n = 169 n = 169 n = 169 n = 169 n = 169 n = 167 n = 167 n = 166 n = 167
Effect size or rural (95 % CI) −0.03 (−0.20, 0.14) −0.07 (−0.24, 0.10) −0.05 (−0.22, 0.12) 0.04 (−0.13, 0.21) −0.07 (−0.24, 0.10) −0.05 (−0.22, 0.12) 0.02 (−0.15, 0.19) −0.15 (−0.32, 0.02) −0.09 (−0.26, 0.08)
  1. Results in bold have p-value <0.05 for difference in means (tested using robust ANOVA); Effect size (ES) calculated using Cohen’s d for standardised difference in means. Interpretation of ES: “small” ES >0.20-0.50 SD, “medium” ES approximately 0.50-0.80 SD, and “large” ES >0.80 SD