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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population with serum 25(OH)D means in nmol/l and 95 % confidence intervalsa

From: Vitamin D status among adults in Germany – results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)

  Women (n = 3,635) Men (n = 3,360)
  n % Mean (nmol/l) 95 % CI n % Mean (nmol/l) 95 % CI
Age group (in years)
 18-44 1277 35.1 49.6 (46.6-52.7) 1179 35.1 45.5 (42.2-48.8)
 45-64 1452 39.9 44.1 (42.2-46.0) 1271 37.8 45.1 (42.6-47.6)
 65-79 906 24.9 41.3 (39.1-43.5) 910 27.1 45.1 (41.5-47.6)
Season of examination
 Spring (March-May) 890 24.6 40.7 (37.6-43.9) 845 25.4 38.8 (35.1-42.4)
 Summer (June-August) 770 18.3 58.7 (55.5-62.0) 694 18.0 61.9 (58.5-65.4)
 Autumn (Sept.-Nov.) 1134 31.2 51.2 (48.2-54.2) 1073 32.4 51.5 (47.5-55.4)
 Winter (Dec.-Feb.) 841 25.9 35.4 (33.2-37.5) 748 24.2 31.3 (29.1-33.5)
Latitude
 47°-49° 1058 31.6 48.9 (45.2-52.7) 1000 31.2 49.3 (44.8-53.8)
 50°-51° 1658 44.5 44.1 (41.4-46.7) 1601 44.5 42.5 (39.1-45.9)
 52°-54° 919 23.8 45.3 (40.5-50.1) 759 24.3 45.1 (39.7-50.5)
Vitamin D intake index
 Low intake 1322 39.8 45.4 (42.9-47.9) 941 30.3 42.3 (39.4-45.2)
 Intermediate intake 1205 32.9 45.7 (43.1-48.3) 1067 31.3 46.5 (43.4-49.6)
 Higher intake 1019 27.3 46.4 (43.8-49.0) 1242 38.4 46.7 (44.0-49.5)
Use of vitamin D supplements
 Yes 221 5.9 55.9 (51.7-60.2) 45 1.0 60.3 (52.5-68.1)
 No 3414 94.1 45.3 (43.2-47.4) 3315 99.0 45.1 (42.6-47.7)
Oral contraceptive use
 Yes 480 15.3 54.5 (49.9-59.1) / / / /
 No 3155 84.7 44.3 (42.4-46.3) / / / /
Use of postmenopausal hormone therapy
 Yes 173 4.0 47.4 (43.3-51.6) / / / /
 No 3462 96.0 45.8 (43.7-47.9) / / / /
Body Mass Index (kg/m2)
 <18.5 67 2.4 46.1 (38.7-53.6) 24 0.7 36.0 (26.9-45.1)
 > = 18.5- < 25 1561 44.8 51.2 (48.4-54.0) 1011 32.1 47.5 (44.5-50.6)
 > = 25- < 30 1111 29.2 44.1 (41.8-46.3) 1510 43.9 46.2 (43.5-48.9)
 > = 30 867 23.6 37.6 (35.6-39.6) 796 23.3 40.2 (37.3-43.1)
Sport activity
 No sport activity 1119 33.3 41.4 (38.8-44.0) 1066 32.8 38.8 (36.5-41.2)
 <2 h a week 1645 44.8 47.0 (44.7-49.2) 1268 38.1 46.6 (43.6-49.7)
 2- < 4 h a week 545 14.9 52.3 (49.1-55.4) 518 15.6 51.1 (47.5-54.7)
 > = 4 h a week 240 7.1 52.8 (47.5-58.1) 405 13.4 53.1 (49.6-56.7)
Media consumption per day
TV, DVD, video
 up to 1 h 556 16.8 50.4 (46.7-54.0) 633 20.2 49.4 (45.6-53.2)
 1- < 2 h 1223 34.9 47.9 (45.4-50.4) 1145 36.0 47.4 (44.4-50.4)
 2- < 3 h 1224 33.5 44.7 (42.0-47.3) 1050 31.0 43.7 (41.0-46.5)
 > = 3 h 547 14.8 40.0 (37.1-42.8) 427 12.7 39.5 (36.5-42.4)
Computer, Internet, computer games, game consoles
 up to 1 h 2571 74.9 46.6 (44.4-48.8) 1995 60.6 47.8 (45.2-50.4)
 1- < 2 h 460 15.0 48.1 (44.5-51.7) 564 18.8 45.2 (41.3-49.1)
 2- < 3 h 136 4.6 47.5 (40.9-54.1) 274 10.1 43.9 (39.8-48.0)
 > = 3 h 159 5.5 44.2 (40.2-48.1) 265 10.5 40.3 (35.7-44.9)
Socio-economic status
 Low 587 20.0 39.5 (36.6-42.4) 516 19.0 40.7 (37.3-44.0)
 Middle 2261 62.1 46.9 (44.5-49.2) 1924 58.7 46.0 (43.4-48.7)
 High 765 17.9 50.3 (47.3-53.4) 897 22.3 47.7 (44.5-50.9)
Residential traffic
Living near a road with…
 Very little traffic 1414 39.9 47.1 (44.6-49.5) 1354 40.7 47.7 (44.6-50.8)
 Fair amount of traffic 988 27.1 46.9 (44.2-49.6) 935 28.8 45.3 (42.5-48.0)
 Quite a lot of traffic 357 10.1 46.2 (42.4-50.1) 308 10.1 44.4 (40.0-48.7)
 Heavy traffic 599 17.3 44.3 (41.1-47.6) 481 15.1 43.9 (40.7-47.1)
 Extremely heavy traffic 177 5.6 44.3 (37.6-51.0) 173 5.4 40.3 (36.5-44.2)
  1. 25(OH)D 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, CI confidence interval
  2. a Results are weighted, except the number of cases