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Table 5 Factors in rescuer survival and mortality, n (%)

From: Mortality among drowning rescuers in China, 2013: a review of 225 rescue incidents from the press

  Survival Dead Chi-Square p-value
Total 359 55   
Average rescue ranka 1.5 1.3 6.7 <0.01
Average number of drowning men in need of rescuea 1.5 1.3 10246.5 0.08
Season
 Spring 78(21.7) 13(23.6) 2.1 0.55
 Summer 128(35.7) 24(43.6)
 Autumn 116(32.3) 13(23.6)
 Winter 37(10.3) 5(90.1)
Time
 Night 4(1.2) 0(0.0) 1.5 0.69
 Morning 73(22.3) 14(27.5)
 Afternoon 193(59.0) 30(58.8)
 Evening 57(17.4) 7(13.7)
Location
 River/creek/stream 228(64.4) 30(54.6) 25.1 <0.01
 Lake 47(13.3) 2(3.6)
 Pond 29(8.2) 12(21.8)
 Ditch 17(4.8) 1(1.8)
 Other (e.g., reservoir, well, swimming pool) 17(4.8) 9(16.4)
 Sea/beach 16(4.5) 1(1.8)
Gender
 Male 321(86.5) 50(13.5) 0.1 0.07
 Female 36(97.3) 1(2.7)
Being an adult
 Yes 307(91.4) 29(8.6) 35.9 <0.01
 No 49(65.3) 26(34.7)
Being a swimmer
 Yes 228(91.2) 22(8.8) 22.8 <0.01
 No 43(68.3) 20(31.8)
Calling for others’ help when rescuing
 Yes 45(91.8) 4(8.2) 0.9 0.35
 No 303(85.8) 50(14.2)
Undressing when rescuing
 Yes 82(89.1) 10(10.9) 0.1 0.92
 No 221(88.8) 28(11.2)
Rescue methods
Pulling on shore
 Yes 32(94.1) 2(5.9) 0.1 0.29
 No 327(86.1) 53(13.9)
Pulling in water close to the shore
 Yes 64(73.6) 23(26.4) 16.5 <0.01
 No 295(90.2) 32(9.8)
Swimming
 Yes 215(88.1) 29(11.9) 1.0 0.31
 No 144(84.7) 26(15.3)
Throwing the floats
 Yes 17(94.4) 1(5.6) 0.2 0.49
 No 342(86.4) 54(13.6)
Giving an extension
 Yes 44(97.8) 1(2.2) 5.4 0.02
 No 315(85.4) 54(14.6)
Pulling by standing on the boat
 Yes 19(100.0) 0(0.0) 0.1 0.09
 No 339(86.0) 55(14.0)
  1. aindicates two independent samples Kruskal–Wallis rank sum test was used for analysis. All other analyses were Pearson χ2 tests