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Table 1 List of terms and definitions

From: Mortality among drowning rescuers in China, 2013: a review of 225 rescue incidents from the press




Primary drowning victim


PDV referred to the victim who fell into liquid initially and may result in death from drowning [17].



Rescue meant rescuers managed to save the original PDV and any rescuers who became PDVs directly no matter they were dead or survival finally.

Victim-rescuer drowning incident


VRDI meant rescuers became dead as well as PDV in the rescue incident.



Survival was defined as a PDV and/or rescuer who had vital signs or regaining them after resuscitation as judged by reviewers based on the media reports.

Successful rescue


Successful rescue meant rescuers helped the drowning victim to extricate from liquid.

Rescue rank


Rescue Rank is the order for each rescuer who undertakes a rescue action, a rank of ‘1’ would be given to the first person who carried out the rescue, ‘2’for the next, and so on. If several rescuers implemented simultaneously, the same rank would be given to each.