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Table 4 Effect of age, sex and socioeconomic status on multimorbidity: Odds ratios in univariable, multivariable analysis using a random effects model

From: Multimorbidity and the inequalities of global ageing: a cross-sectional study of 28 countries using the World Health Surveys

  Univariable Multivariable
  Age (OR) Sex (OR) Education (OR) Education (AOR)$
<55 years as reference Male as reference primary school as reference    
  ≥55   <primary secondary higher < primary secondary higher
Africa 3.3* 0.6* 1.8* 0.8 0.7 1.2** 0.9 0.8
Central & South America 3.0* 0.4* 1.5* 0.7* 0.8*** 1.1 0.8*** 0.8
Eastern Europe & Central Asia 6.0* 0.6* 1.4*** 0.5* 0.5* 1.0 1.0 0.9
South Asia 4.1* 0.7 * 1.7* 0.6* 0.6** 1.2 0.7* 0.6**
South East Asia 3.3* 0.8* 1.4* 0.8* 0.9 1.1 0.9 1
Western Europe 6.0* 0.5* 1.6* 0.4* 0.2* 1.3** 0.7* 0.4*
All regions (MV adjusted for region) 3.7* 0.6* 1.5* 0.7* 0.6* 1.2* 0.9*** 0.8*
  1. p-value *** <0.05; ** < 0.01; * <0.001; $Regional multivariable analyses adjusted for age, sex and country; (OR) Unadjusted odds ratio; (AOR) Adjusted odds ratios in multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex and country