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Table 3 Parental interest in offspring’s studies and help with homework assignments at age 16 in relation to trajectories of internalised mental health symptoms from age 16 to 43 in women and men. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for belonging to the different trajectory groups derived from multinomial regression analyses with the two predictors mutually adjusted. The odds ratios denote the change in odds for each additional level of the exposure (range 0–4)

From: Parental academic involvement in adolescence as predictor of mental health trajectories over the life course: a prospective population-based cohort study

  Latent trajectory of internalised mental health symptoms OR (95 % CI)
  Very low stable Low stable Increasing Moderate stable High decreasing
Whole sample
Parents’ interest in their offspring’s studies at age 16 according to teacher
 Model 1 1.02 (0.87 to 1.21) Reference 1.00 (0.76 to 1.31) 0.77 (0.58 to 1.01) 0.67 (0.47 to 0.94)
 Model 2 0.97 (0.82 to 1.16) Reference 1.02 (0.76 to 1.36) 0.79 (0.59 to 1.06) 0.65 (0.44 to 0.94)
 Model 3 0.93 (0.76 to 1.14) Reference 1.15 (0.83 to 1.59) 0.88 (0.63 to 1.23) 0.89 (0.58 to 1.36)
Help with homework assignments at age 16 according to the student
 Model 1 1.23 (1.07 to 1.42) Reference 0.92 (0.74 to 1.14) 0.81 (0.64 to 1.03) 0.89 (0.64 to 1.22)
 Model 2 1.24 (1.07 to 1.43) Reference 0.91 (0.73 to 1.13) 0.81 (0.64 to 1.04) 0.86 (0.63 to 1.19)
 Model 3 1.24 (1.07 to 1.43) Reference 0.90 (0.73 to 1.13) 0.81 (0.64 to 1.04) 0.86 (0.62 to 1.18)
Adjusted R Square (Nagelkerke): Model 1: 0.146, Model 2:0.179 Model 3: 0.194
Women
Parents’ interest in their offspring’s studies at age 16 according to teacher
 Model 1 1.04 (0.76 to 1.43) Reference 1.04 (0.73 to 1.47) 0.69 (0.50 to 0.95) 0.78 (0.52 to 1.18)
 Model 2 0.99 (0.71 to 1.39) Reference 1.06 (0.73 to 1.54) 0.67 (0.48 to 0.95) 0.75 (0.47 to 1.18)
 Model 3 0.92 (0.62 to 1.34) Reference 1.26 (0.83 to 1.91) 0.72 (0.48 to 1.06) 1.01 (0.60 to 1.68)
Help with homework assignments at age 16 according to the student
 Model 1 1.29 (0.98 to 1.70) Reference 0.88 (0.66 to 1.16) 0.75 (0.56 to 1.00) 0.78 (0.54 to 1.13)
 Model 2 1.27 (0.96 to 1.69) Reference 0.86 (0.65 to 1.15) 0.74 (0.56 to 0.99) 0.76 (0.52 to 1.10)
 Model 3 1.28 (0.97 to 1.71) Reference 0.85 (0.64 to 1.13) 0.74 (0.55 to 0.99) 0.74 (0.52 to 1.08)
Adjusted R Square (Nagelkerke): Model 1: 0.044, Model 2: 0.074, Model 3: 0.101
Men
Parents’ interest in their offspring’s studies at age 16 according to teacher
 Model 1 1.01 (0.83 to 1.24) Reference 0.94 (0.61 to 1.45) 1.13 (0.60 to 2.10) 0.43 (0.23 to 0.81)
 Model 2 0.96 (0.78 to 1.19) Reference 0.94 (0.60 to 1.49) 1.28 (0.66 to 2.48) 0.43 (0.22 to 0.87)
 Model 3 0.94 (0.74 to 1.19) Reference 0.94 (0.55 to 1.60) 1.61 (0.79 to 3.28) 0.69 (0.29 to 1.64)
Help with homework assignments at age 16 according to the student
 Model 1 1.23 (1.04 to 1.45) Reference 0.98 (0.69 to 1.39) 0.97 (0.61 to 1.53) 1.27 (0.63 to 2.57)
 Model 2 1.25 (1.05 to 1.48) Reference 0.98 (0.69 to 1.40) 1.01 (0.64 to 1.61) 1.26 (0.62 to 2.55)
 Model 3 1.25 (1.05 to 1.48) Reference 0.98 (0.68 to 1.40) 1.01 (0.65 to 1.59) 1.28 (0.64 to 2.57)
Adjusted R Square (Nagelkerke): Model 1: 0.033, Model 2b: 0.093, Model 3: 0.105
Lower than national average mean grades
Parents’ interest in their offspring’s studies at age 16 according to teacher
 Model 1 0.90 (0.72 to 1.13) Reference 1.00 (0.69 to 1.43) 1.07 (0.74 to 1.56) 1.01 (0.64 to 1.59)
 Model 2 0.85 (0.67 to 1.07) Reference 0.96 (0.66 to 0.41) 1.07 (0.72 to 1.58) 0.93 (0.57 to 1.51)
 Model 3 0.82 (0.63 to 1.05) Reference 1.04 (0.71 to 1.54) 1.05 (0.70 to 1.58) 1.10 (0.67 to 1.82)
Help with homework assignments at age 16 according to the student
 Model 1 1.09 (0.89 to 1.33) Reference 0.77 (0.57 to 1.05) 0.78 (0.57 to 1.07) 0.84 (0.57 to 1.24)
 Model 2 1.12 (0.91 to 1.38) Reference 0.76 (0.56 to 1.03) 0.79 (0.57 to 1.08) 0.81 (0.55 to 1.20)
 Model 3 1.12 (0.91 to 1.38) Reference 0.76 (0.56 to 1.04) 0.79 (0.57 to 1.08) 0.83 (0.55 to 1.24)
Adjusted R Square (Nagelkerke): Model 1: 0.148, Model 2:0.209, Model 3: 0.237
Higher than national average mean grades
Parents’ interest in their offspring’s studies at age 16 according to teacher
 Model 1 1.27 (0.90 to 1.78) Reference 1.44 (0.80 to 2.59) 0.54 (0.32 to 0.92) 0.41 (0.20 to 0.82)
 Model 2 1.26 (0.89 to 1.78) Reference 1.58 (0.86 to 2.89) 0.54 (0.30 to 0.95) 0.44 (0.20 to 0.97)
 Model 3 1.25 (0.87 to 1.78) Reference 1.59 (0.85 to 2.98) 0.54 (0.30 to 0.98) 0.41 (0.18 to 0.91)
Help with homework assignments at age 16 according to the student
 Model 1 1.40 (1.14 to 1.72) Reference 1.08 (0.79 to 1.49) 0.81 (0.55 to 1.18) 0.90 (0.52 to 1.57)
 Model 2 1.39 (1.13 to 1.71) Reference 1.10 (0.79 to 1.52) 0.82 (0.56 to 1.22) 0.97 (0.53 to 1.76)
 Model 3 1.39 (1.13 to 1.72) Reference 1.10 (0.79 to 1.52) 0.82 (0.56 to 1.22) 0.97 (0.53 to 1.77)
Adjusted R Square (Nagelkerke): Model 1: 0.187, Model 2: 0.223, Model 3: 0.224
  1. Model 1: Adjusted for sex except in the sex stratified analysis
  2. Model 2: Model 1 + adjustment for parental social class, family unemployment and parental mental health or alcohol problems
  3. Model 3: Model 2 + adjustment for own average school grades at age 16
  4. Note: Statistically significant results are marked in bold