# Table 3 Parental interest in offspringâ€™s studies and help with homework assignments at age 16 in relation to trajectories of internalised mental health symptoms from age 16 to 43 in women and men. Odds ratios (OR) with 95Â % confidence intervals (CI) for belonging to the different trajectory groups derived from multinomial regression analyses with the two predictors mutually adjusted. The odds ratios denote the change in odds for each additional level of the exposure (range 0â€“4)

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Latent trajectory of internalised mental health symptoms OR (95Â % CI)

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Very low stable

Low stable

Increasing

Moderate stable

High decreasing

Whole sample

Parentsâ€™ interest in their offspringâ€™s studies at age 16 according to teacher

â€ƒModel 1

1.02 (0.87 to 1.21)

Reference

1.00 (0.76 to 1.31)

0.77 (0.58 to 1.01)

0.67 (0.47 to 0.94)

â€ƒModel 2

0.97 (0.82 to 1.16)

Reference

1.02 (0.76 to 1.36)

0.79 (0.59 to 1.06)

0.65 (0.44 to 0.94)

â€ƒModel 3

0.93 (0.76 to 1.14)

Reference

1.15 (0.83 to 1.59)

0.88 (0.63 to 1.23)

0.89 (0.58 to 1.36)

Help with homework assignments at age 16 according to the student

â€ƒModel 1

1.23 (1.07 to 1.42)

Reference

0.92 (0.74 to 1.14)

0.81 (0.64 to 1.03)

0.89 (0.64 to 1.22)

â€ƒModel 2

1.24 (1.07 to 1.43)

Reference

0.91 (0.73 to 1.13)

0.81 (0.64 to 1.04)

0.86 (0.63 to 1.19)

â€ƒModel 3

1.24 (1.07 to 1.43)

Reference

0.90 (0.73 to 1.13)

0.81 (0.64 to 1.04)

0.86 (0.62 to 1.18)

Adjusted R Square (Nagelkerke): Model 1: 0.146, Model 2:0.179 Model 3: 0.194

Women

Parentsâ€™ interest in their offspringâ€™s studies at age 16 according to teacher

â€ƒModel 1

1.04 (0.76 to 1.43)

Reference

1.04 (0.73 to 1.47)

0.69 (0.50 to 0.95)

0.78 (0.52 to 1.18)

â€ƒModel 2

0.99 (0.71 to 1.39)

Reference

1.06 (0.73 to 1.54)

0.67 (0.48 to 0.95)

0.75 (0.47 to 1.18)

â€ƒModel 3

0.92 (0.62 to 1.34)

Reference

1.26 (0.83 to 1.91)

0.72 (0.48 to 1.06)

1.01 (0.60 to 1.68)

Help with homework assignments at age 16 according to the student

â€ƒModel 1

1.29 (0.98 to 1.70)

Reference

0.88 (0.66 to 1.16)

0.75 (0.56 to 1.00)

0.78 (0.54 to 1.13)

â€ƒModel 2

1.27 (0.96 to 1.69)

Reference

0.86 (0.65 to 1.15)

0.74 (0.56 to 0.99)

0.76 (0.52 to 1.10)

â€ƒModel 3

1.28 (0.97 to 1.71)

Reference

0.85 (0.64 to 1.13)

0.74 (0.55 to 0.99)

0.74 (0.52 to 1.08)

Adjusted R Square (Nagelkerke): Model 1: 0.044, Model 2: 0.074, Model 3: 0.101

Men

Parentsâ€™ interest in their offspringâ€™s studies at age 16 according to teacher

â€ƒModel 1

1.01 (0.83 to 1.24)

Reference

0.94 (0.61 to 1.45)

1.13 (0.60 to 2.10)

0.43 (0.23 to 0.81)

â€ƒModel 2

0.96 (0.78 to 1.19)

Reference

0.94 (0.60 to 1.49)

1.28 (0.66 to 2.48)

0.43 (0.22 to 0.87)

â€ƒModel 3

0.94 (0.74 to 1.19)

Reference

0.94 (0.55 to 1.60)

1.61 (0.79 to 3.28)

0.69 (0.29 to 1.64)

Help with homework assignments at age 16 according to the student

â€ƒModel 1

1.23 (1.04 to 1.45)

Reference

0.98 (0.69 to 1.39)

0.97 (0.61 to 1.53)

1.27 (0.63 to 2.57)

â€ƒModel 2

1.25 (1.05 to 1.48)

Reference

0.98 (0.69 to 1.40)

1.01 (0.64 to 1.61)

1.26 (0.62 to 2.55)

â€ƒModel 3

1.25 (1.05 to 1.48)

Reference

0.98 (0.68 to 1.40)

1.01 (0.65 to 1.59)

1.28 (0.64 to 2.57)

Adjusted R Square (Nagelkerke): Model 1: 0.033, Model 2b: 0.093, Model 3: 0.105

Lower than national average mean grades

Parentsâ€™ interest in their offspringâ€™s studies at age 16 according to teacher

â€ƒModel 1

0.90 (0.72 to 1.13)

Reference

1.00 (0.69 to 1.43)

1.07 (0.74 to 1.56)

1.01 (0.64 to 1.59)

â€ƒModel 2

0.85 (0.67 to 1.07)

Reference

0.96 (0.66 to 0.41)

1.07 (0.72 to 1.58)

0.93 (0.57 to 1.51)

â€ƒModel 3

0.82 (0.63 to 1.05)

Reference

1.04 (0.71 to 1.54)

1.05 (0.70 to 1.58)

1.10 (0.67 to 1.82)

Help with homework assignments at age 16 according to the student

â€ƒModel 1

1.09 (0.89 to 1.33)

Reference

0.77 (0.57 to 1.05)

0.78 (0.57 to 1.07)

0.84 (0.57 to 1.24)

â€ƒModel 2

1.12 (0.91 to 1.38)

Reference

0.76 (0.56 to 1.03)

0.79 (0.57 to 1.08)

0.81 (0.55 to 1.20)

â€ƒModel 3

1.12 (0.91 to 1.38)

Reference

0.76 (0.56 to 1.04)

0.79 (0.57 to 1.08)

0.83 (0.55 to 1.24)

Adjusted R Square (Nagelkerke): Model 1: 0.148, Model 2:0.209, Model 3: 0.237

Higher than national average mean grades

Parentsâ€™ interest in their offspringâ€™s studies at age 16 according to teacher

â€ƒModel 1

1.27 (0.90 to 1.78)

Reference

1.44 (0.80 to 2.59)

0.54 (0.32 to 0.92)

0.41 (0.20 to 0.82)

â€ƒModel 2

1.26 (0.89 to 1.78)

Reference

1.58 (0.86 to 2.89)

0.54 (0.30 to 0.95)

0.44 (0.20 to 0.97)

â€ƒModel 3

1.25 (0.87 to 1.78)

Reference

1.59 (0.85 to 2.98)

0.54 (0.30 to 0.98)

0.41 (0.18 to 0.91)

Help with homework assignments at age 16 according to the student

â€ƒModel 1

1.40 (1.14 to 1.72)

Reference

1.08 (0.79 to 1.49)

0.81 (0.55 to 1.18)

0.90 (0.52 to 1.57)

â€ƒModel 2

1.39 (1.13 to 1.71)

Reference

1.10 (0.79 to 1.52)

0.82 (0.56 to 1.22)

0.97 (0.53 to 1.76)

â€ƒModel 3

1.39 (1.13 to 1.72)

Reference

1.10 (0.79 to 1.52)

0.82 (0.56 to 1.22)

0.97 (0.53 to 1.77)

Adjusted R Square (Nagelkerke): Model 1: 0.187, Model 2: 0.223, Model 3: 0.224

1. Model 1: Adjusted for sex except in the sex stratified analysis
2. Model 2: Model 1â€‰+â€‰adjustment for parental social class, family unemployment and parental mental health or alcohol problems
3. Model 3: Model 2â€‰+â€‰adjustment for own average school grades at age 16
4. Note: Statistically significant results are marked in bold