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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for the sample

From: Parental academic involvement in adolescence as predictor of mental health trajectories over the life course: a prospective population-based cohort study

  Total Women Men Test of sex difference
Total N (row %) 940 452 (48 %) 488 (52 %)  
Parental social class N (col %)     p = 0.332
 Upper class 97 (10 %) 44 (10 %) 53 (11 %)  
 Middle class 513 (55 %) 258 (57 %) 255 (52 %)  
 Working class 330 (35 %) 150 (33 %) 180 (37 %)  
Unemployment in the family, N (%) 173 (18 %) 78 (17 %) 95 (20 %) p = 0.400
Parental mental health or alcohol problems, N (%) 70 (7 %) 40 (9 %) 30 (6 %) p = 0.136
Parental interest in offspring’s studies, N (col %)     p = 0.940
 Probably very large 395 (42 %) 186 (41 %) 209 (43 %)  
 Probably large 341 (36 %) 169 (37 %) 172 (35 %)  
 Probably neither particularly large nor particularly small 144 (15 %) 69 (15 %) 75 (15 %)  
 Probably small 43 (5 %) 21 (5 %) 22 (4 %)  
 Probably very small 17 (2 %) 7 (2 %) 10 (2 %)  
Help with homework assignment possible, N (col %)     p = 0.115
 Yes, always 282 (30 %) 144 (32 %) 138 (28 %)  
 Yes, often 256 (27 %) 118 (26 %) 138 (28 %)  
 Sometimes 271 (29 %) 134 (30 %) 137 (28 %)  
 No, seldom 80 (8 %) 40 (9 %) 40 (8 %)  
 No, never 51 (5 %) 16 (4 %) 35 (7 %)  
Mean grades on leaving compulsory school, mean (SD) 3.10 (0.75) 3.26 (0.73) 2.96 (0.76) p < 0.0001
 Average or below (≤3.0), N (col %) 407 (43 %) 170 (38 %) 237 (49 %) p < 0.0001
 Above average (>3.0) 533 (57 %) 282 (62 %) 251 (51 %)  
Latent trajectory of internalised mental health, N (col %)     p < 0.0001
 Very low stable 254 (27 %) 61 (14 %) 193 (40 %)  
 Low stable 525 (56 %) 275 (61 %) 250 (51 %)  
 Increasing 77 (8 %) 51 (11 %) 26 (5 %)  
 Moderate stable 54 (6 %) 41 (9 %) 13 (3 %)  
 High decreasing 30 (3 %) 24 (5 %) 6 (1 %)  
Internalised mental health symptoms, mean (SD)     
 At age 16 1.14 (1.39) 1.53 (1.62) 0.77 (0.99) p < 0.0001
 At age 18 1.44 (1.84) 2.03 (2.06) 0.89 (1.40) p < 0.0001
 At age 21 1.22 (1.71) 1.50 (1.89) 0.96 (1.47) p < 0.0001
 At age 30 1.47 (2.13) 1.82 (2.33) 1.15 (1.88) p < 0.0001
 At age 43 1.52 (2.30) 1.90 (2.53) 1.14 (2.00) p < 0.0001
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