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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics, health status and use of health services among Brazilian older adults (PNAD - 1998, 2003 and 2008)

From: Diabetes, hypertension and mobility among Brazilian older adults: findings from the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (1998, 2003 and 2008)

Variable Year
1998 (%) 2003 (%) 2008 (%) p-value
Gender: Female 55.6 56.0 56.1 0.274
Age (years)
60-69 57.3 55.5 55.4 <0.001
70-79 30.7 32.1 31.0  
80+ 12.0 12.3 13.5  
Schooling (years)
Illiterate 41.5 37.2 32.8 <0.001
1 to 3 22.2 21.2 19.7  
4 or more 36.7 41.6 47.5  
Self-declared skin colour: white 61.0 59.2 55.6 <0.001
Family Income in Brazilian minimum wages (tertile)
First 42.1 45.3 43.5 <0.001
Second 19.6 21.5 24.2  
Third 38.8 33.1 32.1  
Household Composition: live alone 11.9 13.0 14.0 <0.001
Diabetes 10.3 13.0 16.0 <0.001
Hypertension 44.1 49.0 53.4 <0.001
One or more self-reported chronic diseasea 69.2 60.3 58.2 <0.001
Number of physician visits in the last 12 months
None 27.8 21.8 18.7 <0.001
1-3 39.1 38.3 39.4  
4 or more 33.1 39.8 41.9  
One or more hospitalizations in the last 12 months 13.7 12.7 12.3 <0.001
  1. Note: p-values were derived from chi-square tests. aChronic disease: back problems, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, bronchitis or asthma, hypertension, heart disease, chronic kidney disease, depression, tuberculosis, tendinitis and cirrhosis