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Table 3 Bivariate associations: Stages of change by smoking-related factors (N = 735)

From: Stages of change of the readiness to quit smoking among a random sample of minority Arab -male smokers in Israel

  Pre-contemplation Contemplation Preparation P-value⃰
N = 454 N = 175 N = 106
n % n % n %  
Age at smoking initiation        
 ≤15 years old 86 64.66 24 18.05 23 17.29 0.367
 16-18 years 227 62.19 88 24.11 50 13.70 X2= 4.29
 ≥19 years old 136 59.39 62 27.07 31 13.54 DF = 4
Cigarettes per day        0.247
 ≥31 cigarettes 39 52.00 21 28.00 15 20.00  
 21-30 cigarettes 113 66.08 36 21.05 22 12.87 X2= 7.87
 11-20 cigarettes 157 60.15 72 27.59 32 12.26 DF = 6
 ≤10 cigarettes 96 64.00 31 20.67 23 15.33
Duration of smoking        0.025
 ≥21 years 147 67.76 62 26.05 29 12.18  
 11-21 years 85 54.84 42 27.10 28 18.06 X2= 14.51
 6-10 years 88 66.16 31 23.31 14 10.53 DF = 6
 5 years or less 84 67.20 17 13.60 24 19.20
Previous attempts to quit        
 Never 312 71.89 82 18.89 40 9.22 <0.001
 Once or twice 82 51.90 46 29.11 30 18.99 X2= 53.68
 Three times or more 47 38.52 43 35.25 32 26.23 DF = 4
Nicotine dependence score (FTND) a 414 4.24 (2.66) 163 4.24 (2.47) 95 3.87 (2.60) 0.421 b
KW = 1.47
DF = 2
Parents smoking        
 Yes 244 61.62 85 21.46 67 16.91 0.058
 No 202 61.59 88 26.83 38 11.58 X2= 5.68
DF = 2
Number of smokers at home        
 Two or more 189 66.32 62 21.75 34 11.93 0.032
 One 146 63.48 56 24.35 28 12.17 X2= 10.52
 None 108 53.73 53 26.37 40 19.90 DF = 4
Smokes indoors        
 No 124 52.54 67 28.39 45 19.07 0.001
 Yes 324 65.85 108 21.95 60 12.20 X2= 12.56
DF = 2
Knowledge about smoking hazardsa 454 2.30 (0.99) 175 2.66 (0.64) 106 2.71 (0.60) <0.001b
KW = 25.35
DF = 2
Attitudes towards smoking prevention and cessationa 454 2.01 (1.11) 175 2.49 (0.81) 106 2.50 (0.60) <0.001 b
KW = 36.94
DF = 2
Physician advice to quit smoking        <0.001
 No 304 68.47 84 18.92 56 12.61 X2= 21.39
 Yes 150 51.90 91 31.49 48 16.61 DF = 2
  1. P- value indicates the differences in the distribution of the variable of interest across the 3 levels of the stage of change
  2. aFor continuous variables, mean and standard deviation are presented
  3. bKruskel Wallis for these associations otherwise X2 test