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Table 5 Mean change (effect size over time) in study outcomes

From: Using an electronic activity monitor system as an intervention modality: A systematic review

Ref # Weight (kg) BMI (kg/cm2) SB (hours/day) LPA (MET-min/week) MPA (MET-min/week) VPA (MET-min/week) LTPA (MET-min/week) Overall (MET-min/week EE (kcals/week) Walking (MET-min/week) Steps (per day)
[30] - - IG: −2.3* IG: 2.5* IG: 455* IG: 442* - - - IG: 1057* -
(−1.28) (1.35) (1.26) (0.67) (1.95)
CG: 0.5 CG: − CG: 12 CG: 20 CG: −54
(0.25) 0.4 (−0.22) (0.06) (0.07) (−0.23)
d: −1.63 d:2.12 d: 1.28 d:0.96 d: 3.13
[31] - - 0.98* - - - - - - - 1193*
(−0.27) (0.18)
[32]a - - IG: −5.9Ɨ - - - IG: 4.1Ɨ IG: 12 - - -
CG: 1.4 CG: −5.5 CG: 4.0
d: −3.11 d: 3.15 d: 2.22
[33] TECH1: TECH1: - - - - - - TECH1: - -
−5.9* −2.1 1066.2*  
(−0.46) (−0.52) (1.20)
TECH+ TECH+ TECH+
SBWL2: SBWL2: SBWL2:
−8.8* −3.1 713.9*
(−0.50) (−0.91) (0.93)
SBWL:-3.7* SBWL: −1.4 SBWL: 473.9*
(−0.29) (−0.38) (0.691)
d 1 : 0.11 d 1 : −0.10 d 1 : 0.44
d 2 : 0.55 d 2 : −0.03 d 2 : 0.61
[34]a SBWP:4.1* INT-TECH1: 3.4* CON-TECH2:6.2Ɨ - - - - - SBWP: 281*INT-TECH1: 1286.7* CON-TECH2: 1112.3 -    
d 1 :-0.23 d 1 :0.46
d 2 :0.62 d 2 :0.74
[35] IG: 1 CG: 0ad: −0.08 - - - - - - 6 mo1 IG: −88    
(−0.06)
CG:185
(0.11)
12mo2
IG:-36
(−0.02) CG: 80
(0.05)
d 1 :-0.24
d 2 : −0.17
[36] 4 months 4 months - - - - - - - - -
CG: −0.99 CG:-0.4
(−0.33) (−0.43)
GWL1: −1.1 GWL1: −0.33
(−0.37) (−0.36)
SWA2: SWA2:
−2.67* −0.9
(−0.90) (−0.99)
GWA+ GWA+
SWA3: SWA3:
−3.49* −1.26
(−1.17) (−1.38)
d 1 :-0.16 d 1 :0.10
d 2 :-0.92 d 2 : −0.32
d 3 :-1.46 d 3 :-1.08
9 months CG:-1.1 9 months CG: −0.36
(−0.30) (−0.39)
GWL1: GWL1:
−1.86* −0.7
(−0.63) (−0.77)
SWA2: SWA2:
−3.55* −1.17
(−1.20) (−1.29)
GWA+ GWA+
SWA3: SWA3:
−6.59*Ɨ −2.28
(−2.21) (−2.49)
d 1 :-0.44 d 1 :-0.34
d 2 :-1.23 d 2 :-0.65
d 3 :-2.51 d 3 :-2.20
[37]b - - 3 months IG:10 CG: −905 8 months IG: −465 CG: −33 (min/week) 3 months IG: 6 CG: −42 8 months IG: −130 CG: −127 (min/week) 3 months IG: −15 CG:-30 8 months IG:30 CG:-30 (min/week) 3 months IG: −90 CG: −7 8 months IG: −50 CG: −5 (min/week) - - - - -
[38]a - - - - - - - - - - IG: −163 CG: −639 d: 1.08
[39]b IG: −1.01* - - - - - - IG: −217.8 activity counts CG: −583.68 activity counts - - -
CG:-0.99*
[40]c - - - - - - - - - - IG: 5967 CG: 5341
  1. *p < 0.05, significant within group change; Ɨp < 0.05, significantly different from control
  2. d: effect size (Cohen’s d) between experimental group and control group; d value of 0.8 or greater indicates a large effect size
  3. a:effect size over time could not be calculated; b:reported outcome median (IQR), no effect size calculated; c: actual values, no differences reported
  4. BMI body mass index, CG control group, CON-TECH continuous technology group, EAMS Electronic Activity Monitor System, EE energy expenditure, GWL group weight loss group, GWL + SWA group weight loss plus SenseWear Armband group, IG intervention group, INT-TECH intermittent technology group, LPA light physical activity, LTPA leisure-time physical activity, MPA moderate physical activity, SB sedentary behavior, SBWL standard behavioral weight loss group, SBWP standard behavioral weight control program group, SWA SenseWear armband alone group, TECH technology only group, TECH + SBWL technology plus standard behavioral weight loss group, VPA vigorous physical activity