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Table 2 Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (95 % confidence interval) among men and women aged 40–79 years

From: Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in adults aged 40–79 years in Germany with and without prior coronary heart disease or stroke

Risk factor Men Women
Total (N = 2436) No CHD or stroke (N = 2040) CHD or Stroke (N = 396) P Total (N = 2665) No CHD or stroke (N = 2449) CHD or Stroke (N = 216) P
Daily smoking 21.6 22.4 16.4 0.100 18 18.2 16.7 0.700
(19.1–24.3) (19.5–25.6) (11.5–22.9)   (16.1–20.2) (16.2–20.3) (10.2–26)  
<2.5 h physical activity/week 80 79.6 82.7 0.300 84.7 84.5 86.4 0.600
(77.8–82.1) (77.2–81.8) (76.9–87.3)   (82.8–86.4) (82.5–86.3) (79–91.5)  
Physically inactive (no physical activity in average week) 32.3 29.8 48.1 <0.001 36.2 34.8 52.9 <0.001
(29.7–35.1) (27–32.7) (40.8–55.5)   (33.6–39) (32.1–37.7) (44–61.7)  
<2 portions fruit/day 71 71.5 67.7 0.300 61.3 60.7 68.8 0.100
(68.5–73.3) (68.9–74) (60.9–73.9)   (58.9–63.7) (58.2–63.1) (60.8–75.8)  
<2 portions vegetable/day 93.9 93.8 93.7 0.900 87 86.7 90.7 0.200
(92.4–95.1) (92.7–95.1) (88.8–96.9)   (85–88.8) (84.5–88.6) (85.1–94.3)  
<1 portions fish/week 66.5 64.8 70.2 0.100 69.1 68.6 74 0.200
(63.1–67.9) (62.2–67.3) (64.1–75.6)   (66.5–71.5) (66–71.2) (65.7–80.8)  
Alcohol intake > 10 g/day (women) or 20 g/day (men) 21.4 21.3 21.9 0.800 14.4 15 7.6 0.100
(19.2–23.6) (19.1–23.6) (16.5–28.5)   (12.7–16.3) (13.2–16.9) (3.5–15.6)  
Alcohol intake = 0 g/day 8 8 8.5 0.800 17.4 16.6 27.1 0.005
(6.6–9.6) (6.3–10) (5.1–13.7)   (15.3–19.8) (14.4–19.2) (20.2–35.3)  
Overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) 77.6 76.2 85.9 0.001 62.4 60.5 83.6 <0.001
(75.4–79.6) (73.8–78.5) (81.1–89.7)   (60–64.8) (58–63) (77.2–88.5)  
Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 27.8 25.7 40.3 <0.001 28.9 27.2 47.8 <0.001
(25.2–30.6) (23.2–28.5) (33.2–47.8)   (26.5–31.4) (24.8–29.8) (38.8–57)  
BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg 23.4 23.8 20.9 0.300 17.8 17.8 18.4 0.800
(21.1–25.9) (21.4–26.4) (16.1–26.7)   (15.8–20.1) (15.7–20.1) (12.4–26.2)  
Proportion of unawarea among those with BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg 36.1 39.6 10.3 <0.001 30.3 31.6 15.6 0.100
(31.3–41.1) (34.6–44.9) (4.2–23.1)   (25.5–35.5) (26.5–37.2) (6.7–32.3)  
Proportion treated and awareb among those with BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg 40.5 36 73.2 <0.001 51.7 50.4 65.6 0.100
(35.3–46.1) (30.6–41.8) (58–84.3)   (46.6–56.8) (45.3–55.6) (46.9–80.5)  
Elevated total cholesterol (TC ≥ 5.0 mmol/l) 65.2 68.8 43.6 <0.001 72.3 73.4 59.4 <0.001
(62.1–68.2) (65.6–71.9) (33.6–49.5)   (69.7–74.8) (70.7–76) (50.9–67.3)  
Highly elevated TC (≥6.2 mmol/l) 22.8 24.5 12.6 0.001 26.5 27.1 19.7 0.100
(20.4–25.4) (21.9–27.3) (8.3–18.6)   (24.1–29.1) (24.6–29.8) (13.6–27.8)  
Proportion of unawarea among those with TC ≥ 5.0 mmol/l 57.3 59.4 36.5 <0.001 57.7 59.4 33.1 <0.001
(53.9–60.6) (55.7–62.9) (27.2–47.1)   (54.7–60.7) (56.3–62.5) (23.6–44.2)  
Proportion treated and awareb among those with TC ≥ 5.0 mmol/l 8.9 6.8 29.7 <0.001 9.3 8.1 26.6 <0.001
(7.3–10.7) (5.4–8.4) (21.1–40.1)   (7.7–11.2) (6.5–10) (18.5–36.7)  
  1. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant (bold)
  2. BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, CHD coronary heart disease, TC total cholesterol
  3. adefined as reported diagnosis of hypertension or dyslipidaemia
  4. bdefined as reported diagnosis of hypertension or dyslipidaemia in combination with reported use of antihypertensive or lipid-lowering drugs, respectively