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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of employees participating in a smoking cessation program

From: Predictors of marked weight gain in a population of health care and industrial workers following smoking cessation

Characteristics All subjects (n = 654) Long-term quitters (n = 229)  
Demographics   Subjects without increase of body weight >5 % (n = 115) Subjects with Increase of body weight >5 % (n = 114) p-value
Age, years a 42.4 (±9.7) 43.4 (±9.7) 44.2 (±9.31) 0.53
Gender b     0.64
Male 369 (56) 61 (53) 65 (57)  
female 285(44) 54 (47) 49(43)  
Height, cm c 173 (167–180) 173 (168–180) 173 (167–180) 0.76
Weight, kg c 75.6 (64–84) 74.8 (64–83) 74.6 (65–84) 0.45
BMI a 25.1(±4.00) 25.1 (±4.23) 25.4 (±4.44) 0.52
Civil status b     0.47
single 218 (33) 36 (31) 35 (31)  
married 330 (51) 57 (50) 61 (53)  
divorced 95 (14) 19 (16) 18(16)  
widowed 11 (2) 3 (3) 0 (0)  
Education b     0.56
University 141 (22) 35 (31) 28 (25)  
Apprenticeship 466 (72) 73 (64) 77 (68)  
Basic education 41 (6) 6 (5) 8 (7)  
Comorbidities b     
Arterial hypertension 37 (6) 9 (8) 13 (7) 1.00
Coronary heart disease 28 (4) 11 (10) 2 (2) 0.02
Diabetes mellitus 16 (2) 12 (11) 13 (11) 1.00
Malignancy 27 (4) 5 (4) 4 (4) 1.00
Epilepsy 15 (2) 5 (4) 2 (2) 0.45
Psychiatric disorder 91 (14) 24 (21) 13 (11) 0.08
Antidepressant medication 112 (17) 23 (20) 16 (14) 0.31
Satisfaction with Life Scale (Qol), points c 26 (24–30) 27 (25–31) 26 (23–30) 0.82
Respiratory symptoms b     
Cough 253 (39) 34 (30) 38 (34) 0.61
Sputum 176 (27) 25 (22) 26 (23) 0.97
Wheezing 124 (19) 26 (23) 17 (15) 0.19
Breathlessness at rest 44 (7) 12 (10) 10 (9) 0.84
Breathlessness on exertion 288 (44) 47 (41) 45 (39) 0.94
Smoking-related history     
Age at starting smoking, years a 17 (±3.7) 17 (±3.8) 17 (±3.5) 1.00
Prior attempts to quit a 3.0 (±3.5) 2.9 (±3.3) 3.1 (±3.8) 0.78
Duration longest nicotine abstinence, months a 20 (±51) 21 (±45) 20 (±54) 0.69
Years, smoked a 22 (±8.5) 21 (±10.3) 22 (±8.5) 0.85
Number of cigarettes/day b     0.29
0-10 82 (13) 22 (19) 12 (11)  
11-20 329 (50) 59 (51) 67 (59)  
21-30 184 (28) 28 (24) 27 (24)  
>30 58 (9) 6 (5) 8 (7)  
FTND, points a 4.5 (±2.40) 3.7 (±2.40) 4.5 (±2.30) 0.02
Intensity of craving, (VAS 0–100) a 57 (±32) 58 (±32) 55 (±21) 0.09
Exhaled CO, ppm a 22.6 (±14.7) 20.2 (±15.1) 22.0 (±13.9) 0.38
Pharmacological support     0.91
NRT     
Mono 82 (13) 12 (10) 11 (10)  
Combined 124 (19) 24 (22) 21 (19)  
Mono + Bupropion 92 (14) 12 (10) 13 (12)  
Combined + Bupropion 265 (42) 52 (45) 57 (50)  
Bupropion 42 (6) 5 (4) 5 (4)  
Counselling only 47 (6) 10 (9) 6 (5)  
  1. Data are illustrated for all subjects and permanent abstainers with and without significant change in body weight gain (def. Increase of body weight > 5 % as compared to baseline within 2-years)
  2. a Values are means ± SD, b absolute numbers (%) or c medians with interquartile ranges, BMI = Body mass index; FTND = Fagerstroem test for nicotine dependence, exhaled CO = exhaled carbon monoxide; NRT = Nicotine replacement therapy