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Table 4 Comparison of health literacy indices between Japan and Europe

From: Comprehensive health literacy in Japan is lower than in Europe: a validated Japanese-language assessment of health literacy

Health literacy indices Japan Europe
 GEN-HL Mean 25.3 33.8
SD 8.2 8.0
Categorized index (%) Excellent 4.2 16.5
Sufficient 10.4 36.0
Problematic 35.5 35.2
Inadequate 49.9 12.4
  Limiteda 85.4 47.6
 HC-HL Mean 25.7 34.7
SD 8.6 8.3
Categorized index (%) Excellent 2.4 19.9
Sufficient 18.1 39.1
Problematic 30.5 28.8
Inadequate 40.9 12.1
  Limiteda 71.4 40.9
 DP-HL Mean 22.7 34.2
SD 9.2 8.8
Categorized index (%) Excellent 2.0 21.3
Sufficient 10.2 35.9
Problematic 27.6 21.9
Inadequate 60.1 13.7
  Limiteda 87.7 35.6
 HP-HL Mean 25.5 32.5
SD 9.2 9.1
Categorized index (%) Excellent 2.6 15.6
Sufficient 18.3 33.5
Problematic 33.0 30.8
Inadequate 46.1 20.1
  Limiteda 79.1 50.9
  1. a“Problematic” and “inadequate”