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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants and their general health literacy (GEN-HL)

From: Comprehensive health literacy in Japan is lower than in Europe: a validated Japanese-language assessment of health literacy

  Total (n = 1054) GEN-HL (n = 927) One-way ANOVA
Variables n % mean SD F P
Gender       
 Men 509 48.3 24.4 8.3 12.17 <.001
 Women 545 51.7 26.2 8.1   
Age group       
 20 − 29 154 14.6 22.8 7.8 13.06 <.001
 30 − 39 228 21.6 23.7 7.6   
 40 − 49 211 20.0 24.6 7.3   
 50 − 59 213 20.2 26.0 8.4   
 60 − 69 248 23.5 28.2 8.8   
Age (mean ± SD) 46.1 13.5     
Highest level of education       
 Junior high school 25 2.4 25.7 8.1 0.21 .93
 High school 432 41.0 25.4 8.6   
 2-year college 142 13.5 25.1 7.2   
 College/university 417 39.6 25.2 8.3   
 Graduate 38 3.6 26.4 7.7   
Annual pre-tax household income (million yena)      
 <2.5 146 13.9 24.2 8.2 0.99 .44
 2.5 − 3.5 126 12.0 25.1 9.0   
 3.5 − 4.5 119 11.3 25.0 8.6   
 4.5 − 6.0 183 17.4 26.3 8.0   
 6.0 − 8.5 181 17.2 25.2 7.6   
 8.5 − 12.5 92 8.7 25.3 7.8   
 12.5 or > 44 4.2 25.9 8.6   
 Unknown 163 15.5 27.3 8.6   
Self-assessed living conditions       
 Very hard 132 12.5 24.0 9.1 4.81 <.001
 A little hard 324 30.7 24.6 8.4   
 Common 501 47.5 25.9 8.1   
 A little well 87 8.3 26.7 7.3   
 Very well 10 .9 32.8 6.6   
Occupation       
 Self-employed 61 5.8 25.9 9.8 1.98 .056
 Managerial and administrative 38 3.6 23.5 7.0   
 Professional and technical 142 13.5 26.4 8.2   
 Other (routine and manual) 288 27.3 24.4 8.2   
 Part-time 123 11.7 25.7 7.5   
 Homemaker 217 20.6 26.5 7.7   
 Student 26 2.5 23.5 6.9   
 Unemployed 159 15.1 24.7 9.2   
Municipality size       
 Very large (population of 500,000 or more) 340 32.3 26.1 8.9 2.09 .10
 Large (population of 100,000 − 499,999) 388 36.8 25.3 7.6   
 Moderate (population of <100,000) 247 23.4 24.9 8.3   
 Small 79 7.5 23.6 8.1   
  1. a$1 = about 120yen, in May 2015