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Table 4 Odds ratios (ORs) of energy-dense food intake and Healthy Nutrition Score for Kids and Youth (HuSKY), by parental level of education, occupation and income among boys and girls aged 11–17 years, KiGGS 2003–2006

From: Dietary behaviour and parental socioeconomic position among adolescents: the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003–2006 (KiGGS)

  Low intake of energy-dense food High HuSKY
Basic Modela Final Modelb Basic Modela Final Modelc
OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI
Boys (n = 3230)         
 Parental education         
  Primary 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
  Secondary 1.6 (1.2–2.0)d 1.3 (1.0–1.7)d 0.9 (0.7–1.1) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
  Tertiary 2.4 (1.9–3.0)d 1.8 (1.4–2.3)d 1.5 (1.2–1.9)d 1.6 (1.2–2.2)d
 Parental occupation         
  Low 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
  Middle 1.8 (1.5–2.2)d 1.4 (1.1–1.7)d 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.9 (0.7–1.1)
  High 2.0 (1.6–2.4)d 1.3 (1.0–1.6) 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
 Household income         
  low 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
  middle 1.5 (1.2–1.8)d 1.3 (1.1–1.7)d 1.3 (1.1–1.5)d 1.2 (1.0–1.5)
  high 1.9 (1.6–2.3)d 1.4 (1.1–1.7)d 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 0.9 (0.7–1.0)
Girls (n = 3129)         
 Parental education         
 Primary 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
 Secondary 1.3 (1.1–1.6)d 1.2 (0.9–1.5) 0.9 (0.8–1.2) 0.9 (0.7–1.1)
 Tertiary 2.1 (1.6–2.7)d 1.6 (1.2–2.2)d 1.6 (1.3–2.1)d 1.5 (1.1–1.9)d
 Parental occupation         
 Low 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
 Middle 1.5 (1.2–1.9)d 1.3 (1.0–1.7)d 1.3 (1.0–1.6) 1.3 (1.0–1.6)
 High 1.9 (1.5–2.3)d 1.3 (1.0–1.8)d 1.5 (1.2–1.8)d 1.2 (0.9–1.7)
 Household income         
 Low 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
 Middle 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
 High 1.6 (1.3–1.9)d 1.1 (0.9–1.5) 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 0.9 (0.7–1.1)
  1. aModel adjusted for age groups and region strata East–west Germany (separate models for education, occupation and income)
  2. bAdjusted as the Basic Model and also for media use, total energy expenditure, familial leisure activity, BMI-for-age and perceived weight status (education, occupation and income in combined model)
  3. cAdjusted as the Basic Model and also for leisure time physical activity, media use, total energy expenditure, BMI-for-age and perceived weight status (education, occupation and income in combined model)
  4. dSignificant on a 95 % level of confidence