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Table 2 Past 6 month tobacco use prevalence and SHS exposure in Chennai, Delhi, and Karachi (standardized using world population)

From: A cross-sectional study of the prevalence and correlates of tobacco Use in Chennai, Delhi, and Karachi: data from the CARRS study

  Chennai, N = 6,906 Delhi, N = 5,364 Karachi, N = 4,017
Males Females Males Females Males Females
Variable % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Any current tobacco use 38.6 [34.5, 42.7] 7.3 [5.3, 9.3] 36.1 [31.7, 40.5] 7.1 [5.0, 9.3] 39.1 [36.2, 42.1] 18.6 [14.8, 22.3]
Current tobacco smoking 28.9 [25.3, 32.5] 0.5 [0.0, 1.0] 27.0 [23.6, 30.4] 2.4 [1.0, 3.8] 23.8 [21.1, 26.5] 4.8 [3.0, 6.6]
Cigarettes 22.7 [19.3, 26.1] ǂ ǂ 12.2 [10.6, 13.8] ǂ ǂ 20.8 [18.3, 23.2] 1.4 [0.2, 2.6]
Beedis 8.2 [6.3, 10.0] ǂ ǂ 15.5 [12.3, 18.8] 1.8 [0.5, 3.1] 0.1 [0.1, 0.3] ǂ ǂ
Cigars 0.1 [0.0, 0.2] ǂ ǂ 0.1 [0.0, 0.2] ǂ ǂ ǂ ǂ ǂ ǂ
Hookah; Chelum; Pipe 0.1 [0.0, 0.1] ǂ ǂ 0.5 [0.1, 0.5] 0.1 [0.1, 0.2] 0.0 [0.0, 0.1] 0.1 [0.0, 0.1]
Current chewed tobacco use 13.1 [11.1, 15.0] 4.8 [3.0, 6.6] 15.3 [12.6, 17.9] 5.6 [3.8, 7.3] 19.9 [17.3, 22.6] 16.3 [13.0, 19.6]
Tobacco chew 8.3 [6.4, 10.2] 3.1 [1.9, 4.3] 9.0 [7.1, 10.9] 2.5 [1.5, 3.5] 2.7 [1.9, 3.4] 2.0 [0.5, 3.5]
Pan with zarda 0.9 [0.0, 1.8] 0.5 [0.1, 0.9] 1.4 [0.9, 1.9] 1.5 [0.5, 2.5] 7.9 [5.7, 10.0] 11.0 [8.0, 14.0]
Panmasala 0.3 [0.1, 0.6] ǂ ǂ 0.7 [0.3, 1.1] 0.6 [0.2, 0.9] 0.6 [0.2, 1.0] 1.0 [0.1, 1.9]
Gutka 1.1 [0.6, 1.5] ǂ ǂ 3.7 [2.8, 4.6] 0.6 [0.2, 1.1] 4.4 [3.1, 5.7] 1.0 [0.3, 1.7]
Current other tobacco use 4.4 [3.1, 5.7] 3.3 [2.2, 4.5] 2.2 [1.5, 2.9] 2.1 [1.2, 2.9] 10.8 [9.6, 12.0] 4.0 [2.7, 5.3]
Snuff 1.5 [0.6, 2.4] 2.2 [1.4, 3.1] 0.1 [0.0, 0.2] ǂ ǂ 5.3 [4.5, 6.0] 1.0 [0.2, 1.7]
Others 0.3 [0.0, 0.5] 0.1 [0.1, 0.2] 0.4 [0.2, 0.6] 1.1 [0.6, 1.6] 0.4 [0.1, 0.8] 0.1 [0.0, 0.1]
Regular exposure to SHS 17.7 [15.3, 20.2] 10.0 [8.2, 12.3] 14.6 [11.9, 17.3] 7.6 [5.3, 9.8] 31.3 [28.0, 34.6] 12.7 [10.1, 15.3]
Salivary Cotinine* Mean 95%CI Mean 95%CI Mean 95%CI Mean 95%CI Mean 95%CI Mean 95%CI
Current tobacco use 168.5 [92.4, 244.6] 62.0 [15.1, 108.9] 555.5 [391.0, 720.0] 306.3 [162.8, 449.9] 157.1 [118.0, 196.3] 164.0 [103.0, 225.0]
No current tobacco use 41.3 [6.8, 75.7] 26.0 [9.3, 42.8] 39.6 [15.6, 63.7] 27.0 [0.0, 57.7] 25.5 [5.2, 45.9] 18.8 [15.1, 32.5]
Nonusers with SHS 68.2 [7.3,143.7] 24.6 [3.4, 45.9] 263.4 [106.5, 420.4] 43.9 [22.6, 65.1] 104.7 [54.9, 154.4] 55.0 [20.9, 89.0]
Nonusers without SHS 58.1 [15.4, 100.8] 56.8 [9.6, 104.0] 182.6 [58.1, 307.2] 47.6 [12.1, 83.0] 76.7 [48.3, 105.2] 30.8 [12.4, 49.1]
  1. *Using sampling weights
  2. ǂ not reported due to insufficient data
  3. Note: The total for Cigarettes, Beedis, Cigars, Hookah, Chelum, and Pipe may be less than Current tobacco smoking as some of the observations were missing for the type of current tobacco smoking. The total for Tobacco chew, Pan with zarda, Panmasala, and Gutka may be less than Current chewed tobacco use as some of the observations were missing for the type of current chewed tobacco use. The total for Snuff and Others may be less than Current other tobacco use as some of the observations were missing for the type of current other tobacco use